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NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

Walden University NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis-Step-By-Step Guide

 

This guide will demonstrate how to complete the Walden University  NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis assignment based on general principles of academic writing. Here, we will show you the A, B, Cs of completing an academic paper, irrespective of the instructions. After guiding you through what to do, the guide will leave one or two sample essays at the end to highlight the various sections discussed below.

 

How to Research and Prepare for NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

 

Whether one passes or fails an academic assignment such as the Walden University  NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis depends on the preparation done beforehand. The first thing to do once you receive an assignment is to quickly skim through the requirements. Once that is done, start going through the instructions one by one to clearly understand what the instructor wants. The most important thing here is to understand the required format—whether it is APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.

 

After understanding the requirements of the paper, the next phase is to gather relevant materials. The first place to start the research process is the weekly resources. Go through the resources provided in the instructions to determine which ones fit the assignment. After reviewing the provided resources, use the university library to search for additional resources. After gathering sufficient and necessary resources, you are now ready to start drafting your paper.

 

How to Write the Introduction for  NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis 

 

The introduction for the Walden University  NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis is where you tell the instructor what your paper will encompass. In three to four statements, highlight the important points that will form the basis of your paper. Here, you can include statistics to show the importance of the topic you will be discussing. At the end of the introduction, write a clear purpose statement outlining what exactly will be contained in the paper. This statement will start with “The purpose of this paper…” and then proceed to outline the various sections of the instructions.

 

How to Write the Body for  NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis 

 

After the introduction, move into the main part of the  NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis assignment, which is the body. Given that the paper you will be writing is not experimental, the way you organize the headings and subheadings of your paper is critically important. In some cases, you might have to use more subheadings to properly organize the assignment. The organization will depend on the rubric provided. Carefully examine the rubric, as it will contain all the detailed requirements of the assignment. Sometimes, the rubric will have information that the normal instructions lack.

 

Another important factor to consider at this point is how to do citations. In-text citations are fundamental as they support the arguments and points you make in the paper. At this point, the resources gathered at the beginning will come in handy. Integrating the ideas of the authors with your own will ensure that you produce a comprehensive paper. Also, follow the given citation format. In most cases, APA 7 is the preferred format for nursing assignments.

 

How to Write the Conclusion for  NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis 

 

After completing the main sections, write the conclusion of your paper. The conclusion is a summary of the main points you made in your paper. However, you need to rewrite the points and not simply copy and paste them. By restating the points from each subheading, you will provide a nuanced overview of the assignment to the reader.

 

How to Format the References List for  NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

 

The very last part of your paper involves listing the sources used in your paper. These sources should be listed in alphabetical order and double-spaced. Additionally, use a hanging indent for each source that appears in this list. Lastly, only the sources cited within the body of the paper should appear here.

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Advanced pathophysiology

Hyperuricemia is a health condition known to be commonly caused by a decrease in renal excretion. Patients utilizing diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide are at a higher risk of developing the disease. However, the disease might also be genetically passed from parents to children. An increase in the turnover of nucleoprotein in the hematologic condition may result to an increase in urate production (Singh & Gaffo, 2020). Nucleoprotein turnover occurring in conditions of high rate of cell death and cellular proliferation may also impact high production of urate. Obesity which is an abnormal body weight may also cause an increased urate production which correlates with surface area to volume ratio of body size.

Neurological processes

         An acute gout flare is characterized by pain as the primary symptom. Several factors may account for the felt pain. Bradykinin and prostaglandins production may be one factor that might impact the pain. Nociceptors’s sensitization may also account for this pain. Stimulation of unmyelinated nerve fibres results to neuropeptides release (Mei et al., 2019). For instance substance P which is an example of neuropeptides might be released. A release of substance P results to production of cytokines and PGs. It is also characterized by processes such as leukocytes recruitment, vasodilation, mast cell degranulation and plasma extravasation.

Musculoskeletal process

         Continuous and multiple flare-ups makes gout to become persistent and severe. Due to this reason deformity of a joint is developed. As time goes by, one progressively develops difficulties in joint motions. The uric acid crystals accounts for the damage in these joints and tendons. Developing gout is characterized by urate precipitation that results in monosodium-urate crystals that are needle-shaped. These crystals are found as deposits in vascular tissues such as cartilage and in other avascular tissues such as walls of bursae, tendons, ligaments and tendon sheaths (Zhang et al., 2018). The crystals may also be deposited within the skin closer to tissues and cooler distal joints such as those of the ears.

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Racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.

African-American men are reported to have more cases of gout arthritis compared to white men. From previous research studies, it has been found out that several differences exist in the genetic constituents of renal urate between African-American and white men. These differences account for the difference in number of gout Hyperuricemia cases. The higher prevalence of co-morbidities such as renal failure, hypertension and obesity also cause an increased burden of gout to the African-American men (Singh & Gaffo, 2020). Furthermore, delays in diagnosis and treatments as well as utilization of medications that are predisposing such as diuretics account for the higher number of gout patients among African-American men.

How these processes interact to affect the patient.

         Having a history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension pose high possibilities of the patient developing gout. Increased uric acid also forms a higher risk of developing gouty arthritis. The patient’s obese condition and a recent history of hydrochlorothiazide intake also form a crucial role in gout pathogenesis. A sterile auto-inflammatory response to the crystals of monosodium-urate represents the gout flare. The auto-inflammatory response is characterized by erythema, heat, pain, swelling and loss of joint movement (Zhang et al., 2018). These are the exact signs and symptoms that the patient complains about. Moreover, the patient complains of having problems in the movement of the right first metatarsophalangeal which is the primary location where gout is known to attack. Although the patient is a white male who is less prevalent to gout attacks, his medical history suggest a higher chance of Hyperuricemia which is a primary cause of gouty arthritis.

References

Mei, J., Zhou, F., Qiao, H., Li, H., & Tang, T. (2019). Nerve modulation therapy in gouty

arthritis: targeting increased sFRP2 expression in dorsal root ganglion regulates

macrophage polarization and alleviates endothelial damage. Theranostics9(13), 3707.

https://doi: 10.7150/thno.33908

Singh, J. A., & Gaffo, A. (2020, June). Gout epidemiology and comorbidities. In Seminars in

         arthritis and rheumatism (Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. S11-S16). WB Saunders.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.04.008

Zhang, Q., Gao, F., Sun, W., Ma, J., Cheng, L., & Li, Z. (2018). The diagnostic performance

of musculoskeletal ultrasound in gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS

     One13(7), e0199672. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199672

After evaluating the details given in the case study there is a high probability that the symptoms are associated with migraines. Migraine is a neurological illness that may cause a range of symptoms in individuals. Individuals with this condition frequently encounter problems such as extreme crippling headaches, sensations of tingling and numbness, articulation difficulties, intensified sound sensitivity, light sensitivity, vomiting, and nausea (Weatherspoon, 2017). Furthermore, there is commonly a trend of migraine headaches in the family after evaluation of family background with patients. Symptoms may last for days or hours, and pain that is experienced sometimes disrupts the day-to-day practices. Certain people state that they experience aura during or prior to the period of headache. The aura can result in blind spots, flashing lights, or even obstruction (Weatherspoon, 2017).

Racial/Ethnic Variables That May Impact Physiological Functioning

When looking at the population of people with migraine headaches, there are certain racial differences. In Caucasian women, the incidence of migraines is a little higher. The percentage of Caucasian women suffering from migraines is 20% while that of Asian Americans and African Americans is 9% and 16% respectively. Related phenomena have been found while examining males with migraines (Tao, 2017) where Caucasians account for 8% while Asian Americans and African Americans account for 4% and 7% respectively (Chawia, 2019). Studies have also demonstrated that the racial effects differ in regard to clinical manifestations. In African American people suffering from migraines, vomiting and nausea were less common, but the pain registered was significantly high (Tao, 2017). Nevertheless, African Americans experienced less weak points. In addition, studies have established that in people with migraines, socioeconomic aspects can be established. This is assumed to involve healthcare access, habits, and diets (Chawia, 2019). When examining racial disparities, in conjunction with socio-economic factors and genetic elements, it is considered that these elements directly affect the diagnosis of migraine headaches.

Process Interactions Impacting Patient

Migraine studies tend to leave numerous research gaps as to why patients suffering from migraines present symptoms that are so different. Alterations in brainstem connections involving the trigeminal nerve have been reported to be associated with migraine headaches. Further studies reveal that there is a link associated with brain chemical imbalance involving mostly calcitonin gene-related peptides and serotonin (Chawai, 2019).

Moreover, several elements can be linked to the occurrence of migraine headaches in a diverse patient population. One of the likely factors includes hormonal shifts in women with migraines (Weatherspoon, 2017). Fluctuations of levels of estrogen prior to or after menstruation, the beginning of menopause, and pregnancy have been found to cause migraines (Lagman-Bartolome & Lay, 2019). Another factor is hormone replacement therapy and the intake of contraceptive pills. They have been shown to exacerbate migraines and decrease the time between incidents. Higher stress levels, as well as the usage of alcohol and OTC medications, are also associated with migraines. Certain individuals may discover that sensory triggers may affect migraine incidents. Some of these include loud sounds, secondhand smoke, smells like perfume, sunlight, and bright light, which may cause migraines. Environmental elements like weather changes have been found to often be associated with migraine headaches, particularly that of elevated biometric pressure. Lastly, food additives including aspartame and monosodium glutamate are among factors that can trigger migraines (Weatherspoon, 2017).

References

Chawia, J. (2019, November 9). How does the prevalence of migraine headache vary by race? Latest Medical News, Clinical Trials, Guidelines – Today on Medscape. https://www.medscape.com/answers/1142556-170218/how-does-the-prevalence-of-migraine-headache-vary-by-race.

Lagman-Bartolome, A. M., & Lay, C. (2019). Migraine in women. Neurologic Clinics37(4), 835-845.

Tao, F. (2017). Migraine Prevalence and its Differences among Races and Ethnicities in the United States (2010-2015) (Doctoral dissertation, UC Irvine).

Weatherspoon, D. (2017, December 20). Everything you want to know about migraine. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/migraine.

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Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the neurological and musculoskeletal systems is a critically important component of disease and disorder diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the impact that that these two systems can have on each other. A variety of factors and circumstances affecting the emergence and severity of issues in one system can also have a role in the performance of the other.

Effective analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their mutual impact. For example, patient characteristics such as, racial and ethnic variables can play a role.

An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in neurological and musculoskeletal systems is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment. For APRNs this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

Resources

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.
Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.

WEEKLY RESOURCES

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

The Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following:

  • Both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes that would account for the patient presenting these symptoms.
  • Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
  • How these processes interact to affect the patient.

By day 7 of Week 8

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates

Rubric

NURS_6501_Module5_Case Study_Assignment_Rubric
NURS_6501_Module5_Case Study_Assignment_Rubric
Criteria Ratings Pts

Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis, examining the patient symptoms presented in the case study. Be sure to address the following:Explain both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes of why the patient presents these symptoms.

30 to >27.0 pts

Excellent
The response accurately and thoroughly describes the patient symptoms. … The response includes accurate, clear, and detailed explanations of both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes of patients who present these symptoms and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

27 to >24.0 pts

Good
The response describes the patient symptoms. … The response includes accurate, explanations of both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes of patients who present these symptoms and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

24 to >22.0 pts

Fair
The response describes the patient symptoms in a manner that is vague or inaccurate. … The response includes explanations of both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes of patients who present these symptoms and is supported by explanations that are vague or based on inappropriate evidence/research.

22 to >0 pts

Poor
The response describes the patient symptoms in a manner that is vague and inaccurate, or the description is missing. … The response does not include explanations of both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes of patients who present these symptoms, or the explanations are vague or based on inappropriate evidence/research.
30 pts

Explain how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient.

30 to >27.0 pts

Excellent
The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

27 to >24.0 pts

Good
The response includes an accurate explanation of how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

24 to >22.0 pts

Fair
The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient, with explanations that are based on inappropriate evidence/research.

22 to >0 pts

Poor
The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient, with explanations that are based on inappropriate or missing evidence/research.
30 pts

Explain any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.

25 to >22.0 pts

Excellent
The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

22 to >19.0 pts

Good
The response includes an accurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

19 to >17.0 pts

Fair
The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning, and/or explanations that are based on inappropriate evidence/research.

17 to >0 pts

Poor
The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning, or the explanations are based on inappropriate or no evidence/research.
25 pts

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization: Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused—neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.

5 to >4.0 pts

Excellent
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. … A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.

4 to >3.5 pts

Good
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. …The purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet they are brief and not descriptive.

3.5 to >3.0 pts

Fair
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time. … The purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic.

3 to >0 pts

Poor
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. … No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.
5 pts

Written Expression and Formatting – English Writing Standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation

5 to >4.0 pts

Excellent
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

4 to >3.5 pts

Good
Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3.5 to >3.0 pts

Fair
Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3 to >0 pts

Poor
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.
5 pts

Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.

5 to >4.0 pts

Excellent
Uses correct APA format with no errors.

4 to >3.0 pts

Good
Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

3 pts

Fair
Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

3 to >0 pts

Poor
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.
5 pts
Total Points: 100