NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

Advanced pathophysiology

Hyperuricemia is a health condition known to be commonly caused by a decrease in renal excretion. Patients utilizing diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide are at a higher risk of developing the disease. However, the disease might also be genetically passed from parents to children. An increase in the turnover of nucleoprotein in the hematologic condition may result to an increase in urate production (Singh & Gaffo, 2020). Nucleoprotein turnover occurring in conditions of high rate of cell death and cellular proliferation may also impact high production of urate. Obesity which is an abnormal body weight may also cause an increased urate production which correlates with surface area to volume ratio of body size.

Neurological processes

NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment Case Study Analysis

NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment Case Study Analysis

         An acute gout flare is characterized by pain as the primary symptom. Several factors may account for the felt pain. Bradykinin and prostaglandins production may be one factor that might impact the pain. Nociceptors’s sensitization may also account for this pain. Stimulation of unmyelinated nerve fibres results to neuropeptides release (Mei et al., 2019). For instance substance P which is an example of neuropeptides might be released. A release of substance P results to production of cytokines and PGs. It is also characterized by processes such as leukocytes recruitment, vasodilation, mast cell degranulation and plasma extravasation.

Musculoskeletal process

         Continuous and multiple flare-ups makes gout to become persistent and severe. Due to this reason deformity of

NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment Case Study Analysis

NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment Case Study Analysis

a joint is developed. As time goes by, one progressively develops difficulties in joint motions. The uric acid crystals accounts for the damage in these joints and tendons. Developing gout is characterized by urate precipitation that results in monosodium-urate crystals that are needle-shaped. These crystals are found as deposits in vascular tissues such as cartilage and in other avascular tissues such as walls of bursae, tendons, ligaments and tendon sheaths (Zhang et al., 2018). The crystals may also be deposited within the skin closer to tissues and cooler distal joints such as those of the ears.

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Racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.

African-American men are reported to have more cases of gout arthritis compared to white men. From previous research studies, it has been found out that several differences exist in the genetic constituents of renal urate between African-American and white men. These differences account for the difference in number of gout Hyperuricemia cases. The higher prevalence of co-morbidities such as renal failure, hypertension and obesity also cause an increased burden of gout to the African-American men (Singh & Gaffo, 2020). Furthermore, delays in diagnosis and treatments as well as utilization of medications that are predisposing such as diuretics account for the higher number of gout patients among African-American men.

NURS 6501 Module 5 Assignment: Case Study AnalysisHow these processes interact to affect the patient.

         Having a history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension pose high possibilities of the patient developing gout. Increased uric acid also forms a higher risk of developing gouty arthritis. The patient’s obese condition and a recent history of hydrochlorothiazide intake also form a crucial role in gout pathogenesis. A sterile auto-inflammatory response to the crystals of monosodium-urate represents the gout flare. The auto-inflammatory response is characterized by erythema, heat, pain, swelling and loss of joint movement (Zhang et al., 2018). These are the exact signs and symptoms that the patient complains about. Moreover, the patient complains of having problems in the movement of the right first metatarsophalangeal which is the primary location where gout is known to attack. Although the patient is a white male who is less prevalent to gout attacks, his medical history suggest a higher chance of Hyperuricemia which is a primary cause of gouty arthritis.


Mei, J., Zhou, F., Qiao, H., Li, H., & Tang, T. (2019). Nerve modulation therapy in gouty

arthritis: targeting increased sFRP2 expression in dorsal root ganglion regulates

macrophage polarization and alleviates endothelial damage. Theranostics9(13), 3707.

https://doi: 10.7150/thno.33908

Singh, J. A., & Gaffo, A. (2020, June). Gout epidemiology and comorbidities. In Seminars in

         arthritis and rheumatism (Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. S11-S16). WB Saunders.

Zhang, Q., Gao, F., Sun, W., Ma, J., Cheng, L., & Li, Z. (2018). The diagnostic performance

of musculoskeletal ultrasound in gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS

     One13(7), e0199672.

After evaluating the details given in the case study there is a high probability that the symptoms are associated with migraines. Migraine is a neurological illness that may cause a range of symptoms in individuals. Individuals with this condition frequently encounter problems such as extreme crippling headaches, sensations of tingling and numbness, articulation difficulties, intensified sound sensitivity, light sensitivity, vomiting, and nausea (Weatherspoon, 2017). Furthermore, there is commonly a trend of migraine headaches in the family after evaluation of family background with patients. Symptoms may last for days or hours, and pain that is experienced sometimes disrupts the day-to-day practices. Certain people state that they experience aura during or prior to the period of headache. The aura can result in blind spots, flashing lights, or even obstruction (Weatherspoon, 2017).

Racial/Ethnic Variables That May Impact Physiological Functioning

When looking at the population of people with migraine headaches, there are certain racial differences. In Caucasian women, the incidence of migraines is a little higher. The percentage of Caucasian women suffering from migraines is 20% while that of Asian Americans and African Americans is 9% and 16% respectively. Related phenomena have been found while examining males with migraines (Tao, 2017) where Caucasians account for 8% while Asian Americans and African Americans account for 4% and 7% respectively (Chawia, 2019). Studies have also demonstrated that the racial effects differ in regard to clinical manifestations. In African American people suffering from migraines, vomiting and nausea were less common, but the pain registered was significantly high (Tao, 2017). Nevertheless, African Americans experienced less weak points. In addition, studies have established that in people with migraines, socioeconomic aspects can be established. This is assumed to involve healthcare access, habits, and diets (Chawia, 2019). When examining racial disparities, in conjunction with socio-economic factors and genetic elements, it is considered that these elements directly affect the diagnosis of migraine headaches.

Process Interactions Impacting Patient

Migraine studies tend to leave numerous research gaps as to why patients suffering from migraines present symptoms that are so different. Alterations in brainstem connections involving the trigeminal nerve have been reported to be associated with migraine headaches. Further studies reveal that there is a link associated with brain chemical imbalance involving mostly calcitonin gene-related peptides and serotonin (Chawai, 2019).

Moreover, several elements can be linked to the occurrence of migraine headaches in a diverse patient population. One of the likely factors includes hormonal shifts in women with migraines (Weatherspoon, 2017). Fluctuations of levels of estrogen prior to or after menstruation, the beginning of menopause, and pregnancy have been found to cause migraines (Lagman-Bartolome & Lay, 2019). Another factor is hormone replacement therapy and the intake of contraceptive pills. They have been shown to exacerbate migraines and decrease the time between incidents. Higher stress levels, as well as the usage of alcohol and OTC medications, are also associated with migraines. Certain individuals may discover that sensory triggers may affect migraine incidents. Some of these include loud sounds, secondhand smoke, smells like perfume, sunlight, and bright light, which may cause migraines. Environmental elements like weather changes have been found to often be associated with migraine headaches, particularly that of elevated biometric pressure. Lastly, food additives including aspartame and monosodium glutamate are among factors that can trigger migraines (Weatherspoon, 2017).


Chawia, J. (2019, November 9). How does the prevalence of migraine headache vary by race? Latest Medical News, Clinical Trials, Guidelines – Today on Medscape.

Lagman-Bartolome, A. M., & Lay, C. (2019). Migraine in women. Neurologic Clinics37(4), 835-845.

Tao, F. (2017). Migraine Prevalence and its Differences among Races and Ethnicities in the United States (2010-2015) (Doctoral dissertation, UC Irvine).

Weatherspoon, D. (2017, December 20). Everything you want to know about migraine. Healthline.