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NURS 8200 Discussion: Correlations

NURS 8200 Discussion: Correlations

NURS 8200 Discussion: Correlations

Week 6 Initial Discussion Post:

Correlations

According to Gray et al. (2021), Quantitative research is conducted to describe variables or concepts, examine relationships among variables, and determine the effect of an intervention on an outcome. Correlational research is one of the four types of quantitative research methods available for scientists to use. Correlational research involves the systematic investigation of relationships between two or more variablesthat have been identified in theory (Gray et al., 2021).

Identified Healthcare Problem and Research Question

The healthcare problem I selected is schizophrenia, the research question formulated is can Vitamin D be used to decrease the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia?  Another hypothesis is that vitamin D has a neuroprotective effect on

NURS 8200 Discussion Correlations
NURS 8200 Discussion Correlations

grey matter. Schizophrenia has been describe by Wu et al, (2020), as a complex mental disorder characterized by the problem of emotion, thinking and behavior.  The prevalence of schizophrenia varies in geographical regions (Neriman et al, 2021). There are many theories surrounding the causes of schizophrenia. One theory is that exposure to low maternal vitamin D levels in the fetus and low 25OHD levels in the neonatal period increase the risk of developing schizophrenia in later years (Berridge, 2018). Because vitamin D is the only vitamin that can be synthesized in the human body, the amount synthesized depends on age, skin color, season, ethnicity and duration of sun exposure (Neriman et al, 2021).

Null Hypothesis

According to Stanton (2020), testing and rejecting the null hypothesis is a routine part of quantitative research, but relatively few organizational researchers prepare for confirming the null or, similarly, testing a hypothesis of equivalence (e.g., that two group means are practically identical. The main purpose of the null hypothesis significance test (NHST) is to reject the null in order to gather support for an alternative hypothesis (Stanton, 2020). The null hypothesis in the research question on the use of vitamin D in patients with schizophrenia is do use of vitamin D supplements decrease the incidence of schizophrenia?

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Prediction for Expected Relationship

My prediction for the expected relationship between the variables  is a positive one. Statistical analysis can be performed in SPSS 27 or similar application. T-tests and chi-square tests are used to compare patients. Prediction models are tested with multiple linear regressions. Variables such as male/female, age, height, weight, BMI, grey matter volume, white matter volume and S-25(OH)D. S-25(OH)D levels correlated positively with grey matter (p< .02), whole brain (p< .02) and peripheral grey matter (p< .05) (Berg et al., 2018). In one study  by McGarth et al., 2004). Vitamin D supplements during the first year of life was associated with a reduction of the incidence of schizophrenia males (Risk ratio (RR)=0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.95; RR=0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.90)

References

Berg, A.O., Jorgensen, K.N., Nerhus, M., Athanasiu, L., & Popejoy, A.B. (2018). Vitamin D levels, brain volume, and genetic archtecture in patients with psychosis. PLOS ONE Vol. 13(8): e0200250. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200250

Berridge, M.J. Vitamin D deficiency: infertility and neurodevelopmental diseases (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia). American Journal of Physiol (2018);314(2):C135-51. https://doi.org/10.115223

Gray, J.R., Grove, S.K., & Sutherland, S. (2021). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Saunders Elsevier

McGarth, J., Saari, K., Hakko, H., Jokelainen, J., Jones, P., Jarvelin, M.R., Chant, D., & Isohanni, M. (2004). Vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life and risk of schizophrenia: a Finnish birth cohort study. Elsevier, Volume 67, Issues 2-3, 1 April 2004, Pages 237-245

Neriman, A., Hakan, Y. & Ozge, U. (2021). The psychotropic effect of vitamin D supplementation on schizophrenia symptoms. BMC Psychiatry (2021) 21:309. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03308-w

Stanton, J.M. (2020). Evaluating Equivalence and confirming the Null in the Organizational Sciences. SAGE Journals. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/1094428120921934

Wu, J., Xu, J., Chen, W. & Sun, D. (2020). The group sparse canonical correlation analysis method in the imaging genetic research. IEEE Xplore. Retrieved from the Waldenulibrary databases

You make interesting statements which I agree with. Correlational research is a type of non-experimental research in which the researcher measures two variables and assesses the statistical relationship between them with little or no effort to control extraneous variables (Curtis, Comiskey & Dempsey, 2016). There are many reasons that researchers interested in statistical relationships between variables would choose to conduct a correlational study rather than an experiment. The first is that they do not believe that the statistical relationship is a causal one or are not interested in causal relationships. This is actually where people often go wrong – there is a difference between a correlational study and a causal study. In your research, for example, while you might find a relationship between the independent and dependent variable, this does not necessarily imply a cause-effect relationship. Thoughts?

Reference

Curtis, E. A., Comiskey, C., & Dempsey, O. (2016). Importance and use of correlational research. Nurse researcher, 23(6), 20–25. https://doi.org/10.7748/nr.2016.e1382