PSY 201 Discussion Neurological and Developmental Disorders

PSY 201 Discussion Neurological and Developmental Disorders

PSY 201 Discussion Neurological and Developmental Disorders

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Have one group member attach your group project to a new thread to share with your class. All group members should review the other projects and provide constructive feedback.


Based on the unit resources, do you believe that ADHD is merely a behavioral disorder, or do you believe there is an underlying neurological component? Do you believe medication should be prescribed for children with ADHD? If you were charged with developing an intervention (treatment/behavioral) plan for a child with ADHD, what components would you include in your plan? Support your positions with cited resources.

DQ3 Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is becoming increasingly diagnosed in children. What is bipolar disorder in children? How does it differ behaviorally and neurologically from bipolar disorder in adults? If you were charged with developing an intervention (treatment/behavioral) plan for a child with Bipolar disorder, what components would you include in your plan? Incorporate the research findings from the readings and your own research to support your position.

Every individual has their own beliefs and aspects regarding their life. the way of living depends on their culture and traditions. The worldview is a point of view to understanding someone’s personal experience, traditions, and the events of societies and history (Vidal, 2008). The other example of a worldview is the person who has ideas related to reality and knows the way how to interpret the experience of how the world is operating out is called a worldview (Taves, et al., 2018).

The concept of spirituality is a very wide experience of personal beliefs. Every person has their own perception related to spirituality. Spirituality may depend on religious traditions or the belief in a higher power (Elizabeth, S., 2022). It is also depending on the historic belief in an individual connection to others. It may be related to the thinking and experience of the world as a whole as it is felt by a person in their life on the level of physical and sensory perception. Spirituality is a way to find comfort and relieve stress for people. Some research shows that it is a different path to search for God or a higher power, and it also supports the reality of those persons who are more spiritual or religious are able to cope with challenges and stress. You can check for connections of spirituality by asking deep questions related to illness, emotions, or what happens after death, the experience of compassion and empathy for others, connection to others, and the feeling of happiness beyond the material possessions checking for meaning and purpose of life, and the looking for the chance to make the world a better place.

There are so many different types of spirituality that the person can get connected with their own ways such as breath work, meditation, prayer, serving their community, spending time with nature, yoga, spiritual retreats, etc. As the question asked related to spirituality and the way I can influence the way of care of my patients, I can apply this in my profession while finding the purpose and meaning of my job and responsibilities for my patient to relieve their stress, worries, and to provide comfort by releasing their stress. I will make myself capable to deal with depression, anxiety, and stressful situation, and promote my skills to support my patients. I will respect their feelings, religion, and beliefs related to their culture and history. I will try to find the cause of their stress, try to measure the power of God and the hope for healing, and also try to build positive thinking for life.


Elizabeth, S. (2022, August 19). What Is Spirituality? How Spirituality Can Benefit Your Health and Well-Being. Verywellmind. Retrieved October 4, 2022, from,others%20and%20to%20the%20world%20as%20a%20whole.

Taves, A., Asprem, E., Ihm, E. (2018). Psychology, meaning-making, and the study of worldviews: Beyond religion and non-religion. American Psychological Association. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from

Vidal, C. (2008). Wat is een wereldbeeld? In H. Van Belle, & J. Van der Veken (Eds.) Nieuwheid denken: De wetenschappen en het creatieve aspect van de werkelijkheid (pp. 71-83). Acco, Leuven: Belgium.

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Bipolar disorders account for about 11 percent of the neuropsychiatric disease burden and about 1 percent of the total disease burden in developing countries.
Between 25 and 50 percent of patients in developed countries with bipolar disorder are estimated to attempt suicide, and as many as 15 percent complete the act.
Predisposition to bipolar disorder may be inherited; other apparent risk or precipitating factors include substance abuse, living in an urban setting, and lack of education. The significant impact of social and environmental factors on the presentation, course, and incidence of bipolar disorder argues for increased research in developing countries.
There is no known course of primary prevention for bipolar disorder. Risk factors and the physical and psychological symptoms of the disorder can be reduced and controlled but not eliminated following diagnosis.
Treatment for bipolar disorder often requires a combination of medications, few of which have been tested in developing countries. Acute episodes of mania are best treated with antipsychotic medications or high doses of mood stabilizers; acute episodes of depression can be treated with antidepressant medication and electroconvulsive treatment.
Once acute symptoms are under control, active treatment with mood stabilizers, possibly including psychosocial interventions, must be undertaken to prevent the illness from becoming increasingly severe.

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One of the first descriptions of mania dates from 30AD,[1] but it was not until the conceptual separation of schizophrenia from other psychoses and the description of mania by Kraepelin in 1921 [2] that focused research and attempts to define mania accurately began. The discovery of lithium therapy as an effective treatment for mania argued for the origins of this disorder as being biological. The subsequent research precipitated by these findings revealed bipolar disorder (also known as manic-depressive illness) as a distinct diagnosable condition.

Despite the strong neurobiological indicators that have been discovered for bipolar disorder,[3,4,5 and 6] diagnosis is made on the basis of characteristic symptoms of mood disorder, which include alternating episodes of extreme elevation of mood (mania) and severe depression.[7] Elevated mood can be accompanied by delusions, hallucinations, insomnia, and extreme excitement, and depressive states by persistent low mood or sadness that is accompanied by both physical and psychological symptoms of at least 2 weeks duration and an associated impact on social functioning.

Kraepelin characterized manic psychosis by its periodic course, good prognosis, and mood symptoms in the acute phase.[2] It is important to note that bipolar disorder remains a clinical syndrome and that the neurobiology underlying its causes is not yet fully known. There is at present no biological test or marker that can identify the disease (or a predisposition to it) independently of clinical assessment (e.g., recognizing a family history of the disorder). Both standardized diagnostic mechanisms for disease, the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10),[8] and the (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV) still rely on the course of the illness

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