PSY 201 Discussion Theories of Human Development
Consider the following scenario: You are designing a research study to determine the effects of a new medication to treat bipolar disorder in children. Would you choose to conduct a correlational study or an experimental study? In addition, would you choose a cross-sectional or a longitudinal design? In explaining your choices, be sure to discuss (a) the pros and cons of the research designs you selected and (b) how they would affect the conclusions you are able to draw from your specific study. Finally, discuss what steps you would take to ensure compliance with APA ethical standards for conducting research with children.
DQ2 Nature-Nurture Debate
The nature-nurture debate is a long standing issue in Developmental psychology.
Explain what is meant by the â€œnature-nurtureâ€ debate.
Choose one aspect of your own development (physical, social, cognitive, personality) and explain how it was influenced by nature, nurture, or both.
Locate and read a scholarly research study article that examines how nature, nurture, or both contribute to some aspect of child development. Summarize the research findings and discuss what you found most interesting about the results. Include the APA article reference.
The Swiss cognitive theorist Jean Piaget is one of the most influential figures in the study of child development. He developed his cognitive-developmental theory based on the idea that children actively construct knowledge as they explore and manipulate the world around them. Piaget was interested in the development of “thinking” and how it relates to development throughout childhood. His theory of four stages of cognitive development, first presented in the mid-20th century, is one of the most famous and widely-accepted theories in child cognitive development to this day.
Jean Piaget: Piaget’s theory of child development is still one of the most widely accepted in modern psychology.
Stages of Cognitive Development
Piaget believed that as children grow and their brains develop, they move through four distinct stages that are characterized by differences in thought processing. In his research, he carefully observed children and presented them with problems to solve that were related to object permanence, reversibility, deductive reasoning, transitivity, and assimilation (described below). Each stage builds upon knowledge learned in the previous stage. Piaget’s four stages correspond with the age of the children and are the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages.
Every individual has their own beliefs and aspects regarding their life. the way of living depends on their culture and traditions. The worldview is a point of view to understanding someone’s personal experience, traditions, and the events of societies and history (Vidal, 2008). The other example of a worldview is the person who has ideas related to reality and knows the way how to interpret the experience of how the world is operating out is called a worldview (Taves, et al., 2018).
The concept of spirituality is a very wide experience of personal beliefs. Every person has their own perception related to spirituality. Spirituality may depend on religious traditions or the belief in a higher power (Elizabeth, S., 2022). It is also depending on the historic belief in an individual connection to others. It may be related to the thinking and experience of the world as a whole as it is felt by a person in their life on the level of physical and sensory perception. Spirituality is a way to find comfort and relieve stress for people. Some research shows that it is a different path to search for God or a higher power, and it also supports the reality of those persons who are more spiritual or religious are able to cope with challenges and stress. You can check for connections of spirituality by asking deep questions related to illness, emotions, or what happens after death, the experience of compassion and empathy for others, connection to others, and the feeling of happiness beyond the material possessions checking for meaning and purpose of life, and the looking for the chance to make the world a better place.
There are so many different types of spirituality that the person can get connected with their own ways such as breath work, meditation, prayer, serving their community, spending time with nature, yoga, spiritual retreats, etc. As the question asked related to spirituality and the way I can influence the way of care of my patients, I can apply this in my profession while finding the purpose and meaning of my job and responsibilities for my patient to relieve their stress, worries, and to provide comfort by releasing their stress. I will make myself capable to deal with depression, anxiety, and stressful situation, and promote my skills to support my patients. I will respect their feelings, religion, and beliefs related to their culture and history. I will try to find the cause of their stress, try to measure the power of God and the hope for healing, and also try to build positive thinking for life.
Elizabeth, S. (2022, August 19). What Is Spirituality? How Spirituality Can Benefit Your Health and Well-Being. Verywellmind. Retrieved October 4, 2022, from https://www.verywellmind.com/how-spirituality-can-benefit-mental-and-physical-health-3144807#:~:text=What%20Is%20Spirituality%3F%20Spirituality%20is%20the%20broad%20concept,others%20and%20to%20the%20world%20as%20a%20whole.
Taves, A., Asprem, E., Ihm, E. (2018). Psychology, meaning-making, and the study of worldviews: Beyond religion and non-religion. American Psychological Association. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018-36594-002
Vidal, C. (2008). Wat is een wereldbeeld? In H. Van Belle, & J. Van der Veken (Eds.) Nieuwheid denken: De wetenschappen en het creatieve aspect van de werkelijkheid (pp. 71-83). Acco, Leuven: Belgium.
The sensorimotor stage occurs from birth to age 2. It is characterized by the idea that infants “think” by manipulating the world around them. This is done by using all five senses: seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling. Children figure out ways to elicit responses by “doing”, such as pulling a lever on a music box to hear a sound, placing a block in a bucket and pulling it back out, or throwing an object to see what happens. Between 5 and 8 months old, the child develops object permanence, which is the understanding that even if something is out of sight, it still exists (Bogartz, Shinskey, & Schilling, 2000). For example, a child learns that even though his mother leaves the room, she has not ceased to exist; similarly, a ball does not disappear because a bucket is placed over it.
By the end of this stage, children are able to engage in what Piaget termed deferred imitation. This involves the ability to reproduce or repeat a previously-witnessed action later on; rather than copying it right away, the child is able to produce a mental representation of it and repeat the behavior later on. By 24 months, infants are able to imitate behaviors after a delay of up to three months.