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PUB 540-Benchmark-Epidemiologic Profile Assignment

PUB 540-Benchmark-Epidemiologic Profile Assignment

PUB 540-Benchmark-Epidemiologic Profile Assignment

You will find important health information regarding minority groups by exploring the following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) links:

  1. Minority Health: http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealt/index.html
  2. Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealt/populations/remp.html

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Executive Summary

Adult obesity is one of the public health concerns in Lee County, Southwest Florida. Therefore, the purpose of this epidemiologic profile assignment is to examine the issue of obesity in Lee County. The epidemiologic profile examines a number of issues related to the population health of Lee County. The issues examined include the description of the population profile of Lee County and available data on adult obesity rates in the county. The profile also examines the methods of data collection on adult obesity in the county, interpretation of the results, disparities in data, and public health strategies that can be used to address them. The analysis of the available data on adult obesity shows that the rate of adult obesity has been increasing significantly in Lee County. The high rate of adult obesity in the county is predicted to be attributed to the high rate of the adult population that is sedentary and physically inactive. Consequently, potential strategies that can be used to address the issue of adult obesity in Lee County are proposed in the project.

Benchmark Epidemiologic Profile Assignment

Lee County is a county that is located in southwest cost of Florida. The county comprises the six counties of the Southwest Florida. The county was founded in 1887 and is named after General Robert E. Lee. The county is ranked eighth most populous county in Florida. The total area of Lee County is 1211.89 square miles of land and 408.26 square miles of water. According to the statistics by the United States Census Bureau, Lee County had a population of 770577 as per July 1, 2019. The population represented a 24.5% increase from the 618754 of the population census of 2010. The demographic profile of the county shows that 4.6% of the population comprise of people age under five years, 17.3% for those under 18 years, 29.2% for those aged 65 years and above and 51.0% being females. The racial profile of the county shows that 86.8% of the county comprises of white alone, 9.1% being black or African American, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 66.2% white alone and 22.5% Hispanic or Latino. The population of people with high school graduate or higher and aged above 25 years is 88.4% while those with bachelor’s degree or high is 28.2%. The percentage of people with disability under the age of 65 years in the county is 8.4% while 19.3% of the people aged below 65 years do not have health insurance. The percentage of people living in poverty in Lee County as by 2019 was 11.2% with the population per square mile being 788.7 (United States Census Bureau, 2020).

The public health profile of Lee County the adjusted rate of all causes mortality is 623 per 100000 people. The leading cause of mortality in the county is cancer with a mortality rate of 135.5 per 100000, followed by heart disease (119.7) and the last two causes of deaths being hypertension (12.1) and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (12.4). The county was ranked 11th out of 67 counties in Florida for health outcomes and 67 for health factors. In terms of communicable diseases, Lee County has a high rate of chlamydia (383/100000), followed by gonorrhea (90.9) and tuberculosis being the last with a rate of 2.8 per 100000 people (Lee County, 2019). Therefore, this paper provides epidemiological profile of adult obesity in Lee County Profile.

Data on the Profile

Adult obesity is one of the public health concerns in Lee County. According to statistics collected in the county, the rates of obesity have been rising sharply over the last decade. The findings obtained from the residents of Lee County show that a majority of the population is struggling to live a healthier life, as a way of promoting their wellbeing. The rates of obesity in Lee County have been rising over time. The rise can be seen in the statistics released by the Lee County Health Profile between 2017 and 2020. In 2017, the rate of adult obesity in Lee County was 25.0% versus 26.0% for Florida. The rate of predictors of adult obesity such as physical inactivity was 23.0% during the same year. The rates remained unchanged in 2018 for both Lee County and Florida. The rate of obesity for Lee County remained at 25% in 2019 with that of Florida rising to 27%. The rate of the population with adult obesity rose to 26% in 2020 with that of Florida remaining at 27%. The percentage of physically inactive people in the county rose to 25% from 23% in 2019. Adult obesity arises due to the population engaging in sedentary behaviors that extend beyond physical inactivity.

The high rate of adults with obesity in Lee County could also be attributed to the majority of the adult population engaging in sedentary behaviors. According to statistics by the Florida Health, the percentage of sedentary adults in Lee County as per 2019 statistics is 27.8% when compared to 29.8% of the Florida state. The statistics also show that 52.5% of the adults in Lee County are inactive. Overweight is also a critical predictor of obesity. According to statistics from the Florida Health, the percentage of overweight adults in Lee County is 37.7% (Florida Health, 2020). The majority of the overweight individuals are highly at a risk of developing obesity.

Methods Used in the Data Collection Process

The data on adult obesity in Lee County was collected using a number of methods. One of them is the use of surveys among the public to obtain their subjective experiences with obesity and other lifestyle-related health problems. Surveys provide insights into the effect

PUB 540-Benchmark-Epidemiologic Profile Assignment
PUB 540-Benchmark-Epidemiologic Profile Assignment

of factors such as access to exercise opportunities and environments that enable physical activity in the community. The surveys also provide insights into the effectiveness of the public health interventions utilized to promote healthy lifestyles in the county. The other method of collecting the data about adult obesity is the use of statistics reported by health organizations such as hospitals. Hospitals provide care to individuals from diverse backgrounds including those with obesity. The statistics of the patients served with statistics are collected and transmitted to the county and state public health system for monitoring of trends in health status of the population. The other secondary sources of data for adult obesity in Lee County include Florida Health for health statistics, County Health Data Books, vital statistics, US Census, County Health Rankings, and Florida Department of Medical Assistance.

The frequency of collection of the data on obesity using any of the above methods varies significantly. For example, vital statistics about obesity from hospitals are submitted on a monthly basis for the monitoring of health trends in the county. Sources of data such as the national census are also conducted after a long period. As a result, the data on obesity in the county might not give an accurate picture of the true rates of adult obesity in the county. For example, the use of statistics from hospitals might not provide an accurate picture of the percentage of adults with obesity in the county. In addition, the process of data collection might be affected by factors such as bias in administration of surveys. Despite these weaknesses in the data, the obesity-related statistics provide an accurate picture about the health status and needs of the county.

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Interpretation of the Results

Adult obesity remains one of the public health challenges being experienced in Lee County. The statistics of adult obesity from 2017 to 2020 reveal an increasing trend. In 2017, the rate of obesity in Lee County was 25.0% versus 26.0% in Florida. The high rate of adult obesity during this period could be attributed to the increased physical inactivity rate among the adults in the county at 23% (Lee County, 2017). The rate of adult obesity in the county remained at 25% in 2018 and 2019. The rate of physical inactivity among the population also remained unchanged during the two years (Lee County, 2018 ; Lee County, 2019). The rate of adult obesity however rose to 26% in the county in 2016. A similar rise in the rate was also seen in Florida, with a rate of 27%. There was also a rise in the rate of physical inactivity in 2020 to 25% in Lee County and 26% in Florida (Lee County, 2020).

Reports published in articles also support the fact that the rate of adult obesity in Lee County has been rising over the past years. According to an article by Gluck (2017), a sharp rise in the rates of obesity has been reported in Lee County over the last decade. The high rate of obesity is despite the majority of the citizens reporting to smoke less and feeling an enhanced sense of health and wellbeing. The article further shows that the rate of obesity is higher in the uninsured population that experiences challenges in accessing the care that they need (Gluck, 2017). The article by Freeman (2019) on the obesity rates in Florida share similar findings as the above by Gluck (2017). According to Freeman (2019), about 27.5% of the adults in Lee County were obese in 2019. The high rate of obesity translated into the increased risk of chronic illnesses such as cancer and diabetes experienced by the population.

Adult obesity has significant economic impacts. According to Tremmel et al. (2017), obesity imposes considerable economic burden to patients, their significant others and the nation as a whole. Economic estimates reported by Tremmel et al. (2017) show that the global economic impact of obesity is US$2.0 trillion. The amount translates into 2.8% of the global domestic gross product (GDP). Obesity among adults is also associated with the loss of productivity in undertaking social and occupational roles. The reduced physical activity and increased spending on hospital management of complications of obesity makes it difficult for a community to achieve its desired economic growth. The lost workdays also affects the productivity of organizations, hence, the slowed economic growth in a state (Tremmel et al., 2017). According to Dogbe and Gil (2020), governments incur significant costs in promoting the health and wellbeing of the populations affected by the health effects of obesity. As shown by the authors, governments spent a significant amount of their budgets in public health to ensure that a high quality of life among those with obesity or at a risk is maintained. The research conducted by Chu et al. (2018) showed that the US spends approximately $266 for individuals with overweight and $1723 for those with obesity on an annual basis. The combined cost incurred by the state in overweight and obesity is estimated to be $113.9 billion, which takes about 5-10% of the national expenditure on health. Due to the increased cost of care for lifestyle health problems, the US is projected to spend more than $66 billion in medical cost by the year 2030 (Chu et al., 2018).

Besides the economic costs, adult obesity is also associated with a number of health problems. Accordingly, the risk of health problems such as cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, stroke, hypertension, cancer, dyslipidemia, and reproductive disorders increases significantly with obesity (Rodicio Miravalles et al., 2020; Tremmel et al., 2017). Obesity is associated with an increased risk of reproductive problems such as erectile dysfunction. The odds of dyslipidemia are significantly enhanced in obese individuals, which can cause other metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus type 2. Evidence also links obesity with cardiovascular problems such as heart disease, hypertension and stroke (Chu et al., 2018). Therefore, the above health effects of obesity point towards the need for the adoption of responsive interventions to promote the health and wellbeing of the obese individuals.

In response to the alarming rate of adult obesity, Lee County has adopted a number of strategies to reduce and prevent the risks among its population. One of the strategies adopted by the county as seen in the article by Gluck (2017) is implementing community programs that aim at promoting healthy lifestyles. An example of such program is the Million Mile Movement that was adopted to promote running, working and other different approaches to maintaining physical activity. The county also works in collaboration with other organizations to promote healthy lifestyles among its population. For example, it collaborated with the Harry Chapin Food Bank and United Way to increase the availability of fresh, healthy vegetables and fruits being distributed to the communities in the county (Gluck, 2017). Other strategies that have been explored to address the issue of obesity in not only Lee County but also Florida as a whole include working with children and adults to help them make informed choices on their lifestyles, promoting healthy workplaces, strengthening public health messages about health and schools for optimum health (Freeman, 2019).

Disparities, Limitation and Gaps in Information

There exist significant disparities in the information concerning the issue of obesity in Lee County. Accordingly, most of the evidence on obesity is found in the county databases and not sources of evidence-based data such as journals and articles. There is also the existence of disparity in the rate of obesity reported in the few articles from the county and state statistics. For example, the article by Freeman (2019) noted that the rate of adult obesity in Lee County was 27.5% in 2019 while the county statistics report that it was 25%. There is also the lack of data about the ethnicities that are highly affected by obesity. Based on this, there are inaccuracies in the reporting of the statistics on obesity in county. One of the strategies that can be used to increase the accuracy of data reporting of obesity rates in the county is strengthening the reporting systems used for public health purposes. The reporting of vital statistics related to obesity and overweight should be centralized to increase the accuracy of the obtained statistics. The other intervention is educating the public about the importance of weight monitoring and management. The use of this strategy will increase the utilization of lifestyle and behavioral interventions for obesity and overweight. Additional interventions that should be adopted in Lee County to reduce the risk and rates of adult obesity include health education on the risk factors, effects and management of obesity, promotion of optimum health in workplace, and increasing the access and availability of healthy diets in the county.

Conclusion

Adult obesity is a critical public health issue being experienced in Lee County, Florida. The rate of adult obesity has been increasing significantly over the past few years. The high rate of adult obesity is attributed to factors such as physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyles and difficulties in accessing healthy diets. Adult obesity has significant economic and health burden to the affected patients, their significant others, communities and the state as a whole. The data on obesity in Lee County has significant disparities due to lack of accurate systems of reporting obesity rates and limited evidence-based sources of data in the county. Therefore, it is important that interventions that aim at strengthening the reporting systems, creation of public awareness and investigation of obesity-specific factors in the county be implemented to improve the accuracy of the obesity-related rates in the county.

 

 

References

Chu, D.-T., Minh Nguyet, N. T., Dinh, T. C., Thai Lien, N. V., Nguyen, K.-H., Nhu Ngoc, V. T., Tao, Y., Son, L. H., Le, D.-H., Nga, V. B., Jurgoński, A., Tran, Q.-H., Van Tu, P., & Pham, V.-H. (2018). An update on physical health and economic consequences of overweight and obesity. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 12(6), 1095–1100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2018.05.004

Dogbe, W., & Gil, J. M. (2020). Internalizing the public cost of obesity in Spain: Distributional effects on nutrient intake. Journal of Policy Modeling, 42(6), 1352–1371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2020.01.011

Florida Health. (2020). County Health Status Summary Profile. http://www.flhealthcharts.com/ChartsReports/rdPage.aspx?rdReport=ChartsProfiles.CountyHealthSummary

Freeman, L. (2019). Florida, like nation, faces uptick in obesity rates, new data shows. Naples News. https://www.naplesnews.com/story/news/health/2019/09/13/florida-obesity-rates-rise-2019-data-shows/2300086001/

Gluck, F. (2017). Report: Lee County obesity, diabetes rates rising. Smoking continuing to decline. The News-Press. https://www.news-press.com/story/news/2017/06/19/report-lee-county-obesity-diabetes-rates-rising-smoking-continuing-decline/409473001/

Lee County. (2020). 2020 Lee County, Florida Health Profile. Retrieved from https://www.hpcswf.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Lee-County-Health-Profiles-2020.pdf

Lee County. (2019). 2019 Lee County, Florida Health Profile. Retrieved from https://www.hpcswf.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Lee-County-Health-Profiles-2019.pdf

Lee County. (2018). 2018 Lee County, Florida Health Profile. Retrieved from https://www.hpcswf.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/County-Health-Profiles-2018-Lee.pdf

Lee County. (2017). 2017 Lee County, Florida Health Profile. Retrieved from https://www.hpcswf.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Lee-County-Health-Profiles-2017.pdf

Rodicio Miravalles, J. L., Alonso Fernández, J., Moreno Gijón, M., Rizzo Ramos, A., Turienzo Santos, E., Sanz Álvarez, L., Rodríguez García, J. I., & González González, J. J. (2020). Economic evaluation of surgical treatment of obesity. Cirugía Española (English Edition), 98(7), 381–388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cireng.2020.07.012

Tremmel, M., Gerdtham, U.-G., Nilsson, P. M., & Saha, S. (2017). Economic burden of obesity: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(4), 435. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040435

United States Census Bureau. (2020). U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Lee County, Florida. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/leecountyflorida