Sociological Research Chapter Questions

Sociological Research Chapter Questions

Sociological Research Chapter Questions

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Spirituality would serve as an essential concept in the provision of care for patients because of its crucial role in helping people who believe in its effectiveness to overcome the struggles of their illness. As a healthcare practitioner, I consider the philosophical belief of the patients that forms their spiritual perspectives as essential for making the treatment given to the work since the physical and mental are connected and work in harmony. For example, a patient who believes in praying before doing anything as part of the spiritual routine should be allowed to do so in the healthcare setting whenever he or she wants to engage in the activity. Also, patient care in the current system is defined by the willingness of the practitioner to show respect and understanding of the philosophical perspective of the individual as part of the ethical duty of respect for autonomy. Therefore, the concept of spirituality would play a large role in my care for patients since it functions as part of the framework that they consider useful for restoring their health and wellbeing.

I’m working on a sociology discussion question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

Chapter 3 in Sociology: The Essentials

Define the following chapter terms:

1) participant observation

2) deductive reasoning

3) inductive reasoning

4) concept

5) hypothesis

6) data

7) scientific method

Chapter 3 discussion questions (use the textbook chapter):

1) Discuss Sir Francis Bacon’s explanation of the scientific method.

2) What are the different steps in the research design?

Define the following chapter terms:

1) research design

2) qualitative research

3) quantitative research

4) independent variable

5) dependent variable

6) generalization

7) informed consent

Chapter 3 discussion questions (use the textbook chapter):

1) What are the different tools used in sociological research and why?

2) What is the role and importance of ethics in the research process?

Sociological Research: Designs, Methods
Sociologists use many different designs and methods to study society and social behavior. Most sociological research involves ethnography, or “field work” designed to depict the characteristics of a population as fully as possible.
Three popular social research designs (models) are

Cross‐sectional, in which scientists study a number of individuals of different ages who have the same trait or characteristic of interest at a single time

Longitudinal, in which scientists study the same individuals or society repeatedly over a specified period of time

Cross‐sequential, in which scientists test individuals in a cross‐sectional sample more than once over a specified period of time
Six of the most popular sociological research methods (procedures) are the case study, survey, observational, correlational, experimental, and cross‐cultural methods, as well as working with information already available.

Case study research

In case study research, an investigator studies an individual or small group of individuals with an unusual condition or situation. Case studies are typically clinical in scope. The investigator (often a clinical sociologist) sometimes uses self‐report measures to acquire quantifiable data on the subject. A comprehensive case study, including a long‐term follow‐up, can last months or years.
On the positive side, case studies obtain useful information about individuals and small groups. On the negative side, they tend to apply only to individuals with similar characteristics rather than to the general population. The high likelihood of the investigator’s biases affecting subjects’ responses limits the generalizability of this method.

Survey research

Survey research involves interviewing or administering questionnaires, or written surveys, to large numbers of people. The investigator analyzes the data obtained from surveys to learn about similarities, differences, and trends. He or she then makes predictions about the population being studied.
As with most research methods, survey research brings both advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include obtaining information from a large number of respondents, conducting personal interviews at a time convenient for respondents, and acquiring data as inexpensively as possible. “Mail‐in” surveys have the added advantage of ensuring anonymity and thus prompting respondents to answer questions truthfully.

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Disadvantages of survey research include volunteer bias, interviewer bias, and distortion. Volunteer bias occurs when a sample of volunteers is not representative of the general population. Subjects who are willing to talk about certain topics may answer surveys differently than those who are not willing to talk. Interviewer bias occurs when an interviewer’s expectations or insignificant gestures (for example, frowning or smiling) inadvertently influence a subject’s responses one way or the other. Distortion occurs when a subject does not respond to questions honestly.

Observational research

Because distortion can be a serious limitation of surveys, observational research involves directly observing subjects’ reactions, either in a laboratory (called laboratory observation) or in a natural setting (called naturalistic observation). Observational research reduces the possibility that subjects will not give totally honest accounts of the experiences, not take the study seriously, fail to remember, or feel embarrassed.
Observational research has limitations, however. Subject bias is common, because volunteer subjects may not be representative of the general public. Individuals who agree to observation and monitoring may function differently than those who do not. They may also function differently in a laboratory setting than they do in other settings.

Correlational research

A sociologist may also conduct correlational research. A correlation is a relationship between two variables (or “factors that change”). These factors can be characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, or events. Correlational research attempts to determine if a relationship exists between the two variables, and the degree of that relationship.
A social researcher can use case studies, surveys, interviews, and observational research to discover correlations. Correlations are either positive (to +1.0), negative (to −1.0), or nonexistent (0.0). In a positive correlation, the values of the variables increase or decrease (“co‐vary”) together. In a negative correlation, one variable increases as the other decreases. In a nonexistent correlation, no relationship exists between the variables.

People commonly confuse correlation with causation. Correlational data do not indicate cause‐and‐effect relationships. When a correlation exists, changes in the value of one variable reflect changes in the value of the other. The correlation does not imply that one variable causes the other, only that both variables somehow relate to one another. To study the effects that variables have on each other, an investigator must conduct an experiment.

Experimental research

Experimental research attempts to determine how and why something happens. Experimental research tests the way in which an independent variable (the factor that the scientist manipulates) affects a dependent variable (the factor that the scientist observes).
A number of factors can affect the outcome of any type of experimental research. One is finding samples that are random and representative of the population being studied. Another is experimenter bias, in which the researcher’s expectations about what should or should not happen in the study sway the results. Still another is controlling for extraneous variables, such as room temperature or noise level, that may interfere with the results of the experiment. Only when the experimenter carefully controls for extraneous variables can she or he draw valid conclusions about the effects of specific variables on other variables.

Cross-cultural research

Sensitivity to others’ norms, folkways, values, mores, attitudes, customs, and practices necessitates knowledge of other societies and cultures. Sociologists may conduct cross‐cultural research, or research designed to reveal variations across different groups of people. Most cross‐cultural research involves survey, direct observation, and participant observation methods of research.
Participant observation requires that an “observer” become a member of his or her subjects’ community. An advantage of this method of research is the opportunity it provides to study what actually occurs within a community, and then consider that information within the political, economic, social, and religious systems of that community. Cross‐cultural research demonstrates that Western cultural standards do not necessarily apply to other societies. What may be “normal” or acceptable for one group may be “abnormal” or unacceptable for another.

Research with existing data, or secondary analysis

Some sociologists conduct research by using data that other social scientists have already collected. The use of publicly accessible information is known as secondary analysis, and is most common in situations in which collecting new data is impractical or unnecessary. Sociologists may obtain statistical data for analysis from businesses, academic institutions, and governmental agencies, to name only a few sources. Or they may use historical or library information to generate their hypotheses.

Topic 1 DQ 1

Oct 3-5, 2022

What would spirituality be according to your own worldview? How do you believe that your conception of spirituality would influence the way in which you care for patients?

In essence, spirituality is the quest for the meaning of life (Bogue and Hogan, 2020). This vague term takes on many meanings depending on who is asked. Worldviews have a large impact on what path spirituality takes for someone. Personally, my worldview aligns with realism and optimism. Realism in the fact that what I can perceive and what is tangible in this world is what creates the majority of my experience. My optimistic worldview allows me to rely on such ideas as faith in order to maintain a positive view of my future. These play into my spirituality by allowing me to stay grounded in the present and accepting that the future is still unknown but has so much potential to be better than what I can comprehend now. My worldview allows my spirituality to be fluid and less of a daily burden mentally. The combination of my worldview and spirituality allow me to be present for my patients in their times of need, maintain positivity, be open to external experiences and worldviews, all while maintaining a tangible awareness of the physical ailments they are experiencing. Faith without realism does not benefit the patient because even if a grim prognosis exists, realism allows us to deal with the now and continue to move forward. Even if moving forward towards a terminal diagnosis, solace can be found in working through the physical realm to eventually be at peace in faith; knowing all that can be done in the now has been addressed.


Bogue, D. W. and Hogan, M. (2020). Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics. Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in health care. Retrieved from

The concept of sociological perspective brings forth a nuanced analysis of scenarios aside from the obvious reasons attached to them. A variety of studies on the subject reveal that whereas certain decisions may appear to come from a personal choice or is influenced by common sense, the power of the society in shaping them cannot be understated. Indeed, from a novice sociologist, certain decisions such as who to marry, attending college, giving birth, and committing suicide may all be associated with personal choices. Such decisions receive that backing of common sense since for one to make them, they have to decide by themselves. However, the sociological perspective takes a varied approach by examining the role of the society and the power of the society in influencing such decisions (Macionis, 2017). For instance, whereas one may think that falling in love is a matter of succumbing to feelings, the sociological perspective begs to differ. According to this perspective, marrying entails a wide range of societal forces such as the social class, race, academic level, and economic level of an individual. Sociological studies have demonstrated that people belonging to the same racial class, social class, economic class, and education levels are more likely to marry each other than otherwise.

Moreover, the issue of committing suicides may also be construed as a personal choice from the common sense perspective. However, the sociological perspective also offers its version of the events leading to the existence of suicides amongst a cohort. This perspective indicts the absence of tight social ties precipitated by personal freedom as the principal causative factor of suicides. Additionally, other issues affecting the society may also be related to sociological forces and not personal circumstances. Normally, matters such as poverty may be attributable to the laziness or an absence of effort yet the sociological perspective dictates that societal forces such as marginalization and poor economic performances are the culprits for such situations. Therefore, whereas the common sense approach is a simplistic analysis of issues, the sociological perspective adopts the more complex societal influences on matters affecting an individual.

The Importance of Global Perspective

            The global perspective has become paramount in an increasingly technologically advanced world. In this world, the personal troubles are not varied from public issues. In the global perspective, it is reckoned that certain people experience societal challenges because they were unlucky to be born in poor countries and the vice-versa is also true. In other words, the individual successes and challenges that one experiences are not unique to them but are caused by larger social trends such as globalization. Therefore, it is integral to understand that where one lives influence their perception of the word since it shapes their lives. To this end, the sociological perspective allows us to understand that society and not humans as the principal cause of poverty. Also, the sociological imagination permits us to discover solutions from an increasingly interconnected world. The technological trends and all the immigration trends enable us to become increasingly diversified in the world. However, even with these trends, it becomes important to realize that some countries, because of their economic superiority, offer chances for more success as compared to others.

Advantages of Sociological Thinking

            Yes, I have had low-income jobs. When I came to the United States, I had to work as a waitress just like Ehrenreich with the exception that mine was for surviving and not really for examining the inequalities that influenced her. Suffice it to say that the job was the complete opposite of what I had expected of the American dream. One had to wake up very early in the morning and leave it very late at night by working overtime in order to make more money. Moreover, one had to ensure that they placated patrons even those that mistreated us. However, with a little intelligence combined with hard work, it became possible to make some money from the gig to sustain myself after working so hard.

The assertion by Ehrenreich that most well off people in some states depend on low wage workers for survival means that the society is interconnected and that money does not buy everything. By this, she implies that it is only opportunities that differ but even the low-wage people have the intelligence and the skills to make the lives of people in a society complete. In other words, Ehrenreich implies that it is the diversity of the society that makes it complete as there are things that well-off people cannot do even with money but they have to utilize the skills of the low-wage individuals to accomplish them.

However, when it comes to people working in stores such as Walmart and Wendy’s to enroll to college to pursue a career of their own desires, the chance is almost nil. According to the principle of low-wage jobs, the economic status of the people ensure that they are constantly having to work hard in order to sustain themselves. The low-wage jobs that they do makes it impossible for them to enroll to colleges while concurrently working as they do not have the time. The fact that they do not enjoy social protection also makes them apprehensive of  joining colleges to get a degree or certificate so as to pursue their dreams. The situation is true even for those with the intelligence to become more in the society. Therefore, the fact that these people find it hard to climb the academic and career ladder is a manifestation of the existing economic discrimination against them as created by the society in the United States.

The Sociological Theories

            Despite efforts of eradicating it, inequality in the 21st century has become even more pronounced. W.E.B du Bois was a pioneer in wanting to eradicate societal inequality based on race (Macionis, 2017). Since then, whereas several people have attempted to instigate public action against the issue, it still persists. Therefore, if he were alive today, the racially-biased inequality and exclusion would make him sad. Thus, he would admonish the matter and say that no difference exists between the contemporary racial segregation and the one of the 20th century. Therefore, du Bois would still have called for public action concerning the matter.

Double-consciousness is one of the concepts that Du Bois extensively tackled. The concept as an aspect of color line ensured that African-Americans had to think twice about identifying as Americans as opposed to their white colleagues (Macionis, 2017). Even today, African-Americans still experience double-consciousness given the string of challenges that they experience. In the recent past, racial profiling by the police has seen a lot of black people being shot without any justification compared to their white colleagues. As such, the discrimination in these shootings makes these people to question their identity as Americans. Moreover, successful African-Americans strive to associated themselves with their colleagues as they need the validation of their wealthy white people. A classical case in study is Jay Z’s decision to work with the NFL when Collin Kapaernick was leading a revolution against the injustices against African-Americans by the police. However, as a first billionaire artist, Jay Z chose to side with the money over the cause, which is a classical manifestation of double consciousness.

The role of sociology in reducing racial conflicts is pronounced. Du Bois believed that sociologists not only have to study conflicts but also need to formulate solutions to them. One of the pertinent methodologies that sociology can use to solve racial conflicts is through the usage of social imagination (Brint, 2017). In this approach, sociologists consider conflicts as a constructive process tta can generate meaningful change as well as enhance social integration. In other words, sociologists may see racial conflicts as a functional process necessary to produce the desired change though sociological imagination.




Brint, S. (2017). Guide for the Perplexed: On Michael Burawoy’s “Public Sociology” 1. In Public Sociology (pp. 237-262). Routledge.

Macionis, J. J. (2017). Sociology, Global Edition. Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.

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