Sustainability Program Discussion

Sustainability Program Discussion

Sustainability Program Discussion

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A funder gives money to groups that will buy food and distribute it to low-income families.
A funder gives money to groups that will create community gardens with resident participants in low-income neighborhoods who will continue the program in years to come.
Given the realities of international financial volatility, funding for public health programs may be abruptly discontinued, leaving programs unfinished and participants underserved. Public health professionals need to anticipate how a program will be sustained when the funding or program term ends. Not only is this better for the program itself, but it provides more lasting benefits for society.

For this Discussion, review the media titled Empowering Women. Consider how the program executives raise funds to sustain their program despite a small operating budget. Also, consider some of the serious ramifications for social change in Belize if the program was not sustainable.

Read the following scenario: My program is Child Obesity Prevention Program focus and implementation in school setting and focus on African American Children.

You receive funding for your program ( child obesity prevention program implemented in school )After 3 years, the funding ends. Consider how you can sustain your program past the initial funding of your program, and determine the long-term impact it might have on the community.Sustainability Program Discussion
Post an explanation of the importance of sustainability to your chosen public health program (SPP). Then, explain the strategies you might incorporate into your program to ensure sustainability in post-funding years. Finally, explain how your public health program, if implemented, could promote long-term social change.

Types of evaluation
There are different forms of program evaluation, which includes formative, process, impact, and outcome assessment (Gafoor, 2013).
Formative Evaluation
This type of evaluation guarantees that initiative is achieving activities that are planned and appropriate for the implementation of the program (CDC, n.d). It is used by evaluators to develop and modify existing program or adopting a new activity. Thus, this will be crucial to attain the goals of child obesity program and guarantee its success. Formative evaluation asses the quality of the implementation and the initiative delivery. This step ensures the success of the program and captures any issues that need to be modified before full implementation. To make formative evaluation quantitative and qualitative data is collected throughout the duration of the program and assessments are done to inform stakeholders and make any necessary changes. This data is collected from surveys and discussion groups with parents and children before and after each step of the implementation to check feedback and make improvements and get better results. These data are useful in analyzing achievement trends. Evaluators can use exploratory and open-ended questions in the group discussion or distribute surveys to determine program progress as well as identifying weak parts of the program. Quantitative data reveals if resources allocation is convenient and used as intended.
Process Evaluation
Process evaluation reveals if program initiative and activities are coherent with the program plan and will lead to the set goals and outcomes (CDC, n.d.). Process evaluation will keep track of progress and determine if plan and activities meet the goals and are culturally accepted by diverse children included in the program and their parents and if the initiative accessible to them as well. Parents should be able to be in awareness sessions one per month and make monthly surveys to monitor behavioral and physical progress as well as increase in knowledge. Also, children should have access to healthy food and have transportation mean to take them home after free physical training offered after school. Quantitative data will reveal how funds are used and resources allocated and number of participants and change in BMI value in children. Whereas qualitative data reveals behavioral and attitude progress and focus groups can provide feedback.
Impact Evaluation
Impact evaluation focused on the impact of the end on results of the initiative that was implemented whether they were intended or not intended (Issel &Wells, 2017). It will thus reveal if initiative results in decreasing child obesity and achieving the goal in Dayton, Ohio. This evaluation depends on quantitative data from community using surveys. It reveals the impact of the initiative on the community and not only the school where the program setting will have most of its focus. The stakeholders will be WIC, CDC in Ohio , pediatric clinics collated with the program and the school board.
Outcome Evaluation
Its focus is to achieve both the short as well as the long-term program goals. Outcome evaluation detects the progress in life quality and health, and behavioral change. This evaluation will seek to check if child obesity rates are decreased in Dayton community. This will be done in community meeting assisted by leaders and focus groups in schools to get some feedback. It will use both quantitative and qualitative ways to collect data to have view of the program’s goal. Results will reveal the success of the program implementation in community and thus success in school settings as well and how well were the goals achieved.

1. Evaluation Goals

Table 1. Evaluation Goals
Type of Evaluation Evaluation Goal
Formative Evaluation The evaluation seeks to achieving the program goals and improving the program during program development and implementation (RHIhub, 2018 ).

Process Evaluation The evaluation tests the early results of the program and check if is on track with the plan, what challenges are faced during implementation and plan modification needed to reach the goal. It describes various procedures, activities, and policies of the program (JBA, 2007).

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Impact Evaluation Impact evaluation measures the effectiveness of the program on target population. It measures modification in awareness, knowledge attitudes, behaviors, etc. (RHIhub, 2018 ).

Outcome Evaluation Outcome evaluation focuses if long and short team goals are met. It measures change in quality of life and behaviors (RHIhub, 2018)

2. Data Collection

Table 2. Evaluation Data Collection Strategy
Evaluation Purpose Evaluation Question Measures/Indicators Data Collection Method
Formative Evaluation Does in school intervention show any change in BMI of children and their behavior?
Is there reduction in screen time accompanied with increase of physical activity?
Written assessment does it reveal that children have better understanding of nourishing food and why it is important to stay away from high sugar food and soda drinks.
Are results indicating that the short-term goals are met? Elements that can be observed are BMI and total weight. Also, attitudes and behavioral changes can be detected if kids were asked to plan their own weekly diet and we offered some options on the assessment and asked to pack their own lunch box or at least choose what they want to pack for school. Also, time per week spent in workout and screen hours can give a clear idea of the short- and long-term results of the program. Data can be collected by making surveys, group discussion, assigning tasks for the children as asking them to plan their own weekly diet, pack their own lunch box, planning their workout at home routine and duration. This can be done on small group of the total target population monitored by public health educator and no statistical analysis is necessary.

Process Evaluation Process evaluation intends to check is program progress is on track or challenges forced changes in the plan. It specifies services offered in the program and the target population and it relies on stakeholders’ perception of the program It is a progress indicator that is observable and measurable. In this case we measure the kids’ weight and BMI to check change every month to check kids’ progress.
Observe any modification in adopting healthy behaviors such as how many healthy meals and snacks kids eat in school every week, and how many hours they practice.
Nutritionist will check children’s BMI and public health educator and teacher will monitor and report number of healthy meals they have and the number of hours they work out per week.

Impact Evaluation It studies the impact of the program on target population and stakeholders. Impact evaluation reveals not only the result but also the modifications due to these results.
Impact indicators include changes in awareness, knowledge and skills (RHIhub, 2018) This evaluation depends on quantitative data from community using surveys filled by community members and children’s parents.
Outcome Evaluation Its focus is to achieve both the short as well as the long-term program goals. Outcome evaluation detects the progress in life quality and health, and behavioral change. Outcome Evaluation measures program effects in the target population by assessing the progress in the outcomes.
Increased mental and physical wellbeing and increased knowledge are major indicators.

Data can be collected from nutritionist, psychiatrist, pediatric clinic, surveys and focus groups to determine all qualitative and quantitative aspects of this program.
Quantitative information will include BMI, weight, hours of workout per week.
Qualitative data will include behavioral, attitude and quality of health and life.

Spirituality is the way to find meaning, hope, comfort, and inner peace in life. Many people find spirituality through religion. Some people find it through music, art, or a connection with nature. Others find it in their values and principles. Spirituality involves the recognition of a feeling or sense or belief that there is something greater than myself, something more to being human than sensory experience, and that the greater whole of which we are part is cosmic or divine in nature.

Healthy spirituality gives a sense of peace, wholeness, and balance among the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual aspects of our lives. However, for most people, the path to such spirituality passes through struggles and suffering and often includes experiences that are frightening and painful. Positive beliefs, comfort, and strength gained from religion, meditation, and prayer can contribute to well-being. It may even promote healing. Improving your spiritual health may not cure an illness, but it may help you feel better.

Patients who are spiritual may utilize their beliefs in coping with illness, pain, and life stresses. Some studies indicate that those who are spiritual tend to have a more positive outlook and a better quality of life (Bogue, 2020).

Similar to other caring activities and procedures, spiritual care improves people’s spiritual well-being and performance as well as the quality of their spiritual life. Spiritual care has positive effects on individuals’ stress responses, and spiritual well-being such as the balance between physical, psychosocial, and spiritual aspects of self, a sense of integrity and excellence, and interpersonal relationships. Spiritual well-being is important for an individual’s health potential and the experience of illness/hospitalization can threaten the optimum achievement of this potential. Professional nursing embraces spiritual care as a dimension of practice.

Nurses’ practice patterns in the area of spiritual care can be grouped into two categories including religious and nonreligious interventions. Religious interventions include treating patients’ religious beliefs without prejudice, providing them with opportunities for connecting with God and expressing their values and beliefs, helping them practice their religion, and referring them to clerical and religious leaders (O’Brien, et al., 2019). Nonreligious interventions include nurses’ presence for patients and their families, making direct eye contact when communicating with patients, sympathizing with patients and their families, listening to patients and their families attentively, and having love and enthusiasm for patients.

Although spiritual care is meant to help people, I frequently gain as a nurse. Interpersonal trust and a connection with the patient require high emotional intelligence. It’s important to realize that spirituality isn’t always theological care (Ross et al., 2018). Whereas the healthcare industry easily incorporates spirituality into therapy, spiritual care is essential in all sectors of operation. For the sake of our clients, we as caregivers must respect spiritual support, learn the required skills, and schedule time to satisfy these needs.


Bogue, D. W., & Hogan, M. (2020). Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in Health Care. Retrieved from 

O’Brien, M., Kinloch, K., Groves, K., & Jack, B. (2019, August 9). Meeting patients’ spiritual needs during end of life care: A qualitative study of nurses’ and healthcare professionals’ perceptions of spiritual care training. Edge Hill University. Retrieved from 

Ross , L., McSherry, W., Giske, T., Van Leeuwen, R., Schep-Akkerman, A., Koslander, T., Hall, J., Ostergaard Steenfeldt , V., & Jarvis, P. (2018, August). Nursing and midwifery students’ perceptions of spirituality, spiritual care, and spiritual care competency: A prospective, Longitudinal, correlational European study. Nurse education today. Retrieved from