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The Use of Nursing Theories Assignment

The Use of Nursing Theories Assignment

Scenario 2: A 42-year-old man comes to clinic with chief complaint of pain, redness, and swelling of his right calf. He states that he had been working in his yard using a string trimmer when the trimmer slipped and cut his leg. He cleaned the wound with water from the garden hose and covered the wound with a large Band-Aid. Several days later, he developed fever to 100.6˚ F and chills and noticed that his leg was swollen and red. He comes to the emergency department for definitive care.

The use of nursing theories is critical to patient care because of the different purposes that they serve. Nursing theories assist in informing every interaction between nurses and patients. Through defining the features of the nurse-patient interaction, these theories shape how nurses develop relationships with patients (Wei et al., 2019). The purpose of most nursing theories is to help nurses identify care needs among patients, articulate what they can do for patients and why they do it, and determine the kind of information to collect to develop care plans. Through theories, nurses can comprehend and evaluate health situations, explain and anticipate certain responses from patients and map out objectives and anticipated outcomes (Bahabadi et al., 2020). These theories also help nurses determine the interventions to deliver, best practices, and selection of productive areas for research. The implication is that nursing theories are fundamental to quality care provision as they help nurses to possess background propositions to offer the best care.

Scenario 3: A 34-year-old Hispanic-American male with end-stage renal disease received kidney transplant from a cadaver donor, as no one in his family was a good match. His post-operative course was uneventful, and he was discharged with the antirejection drugs Tacrolimus (Prograf), Cyclosporine (Neoral), and Imuran (Azathioprine). He did well for 3 months and had returned to his job as a policeman. Six months after his transplant, he began to gain weight, had decreased urine output, was very fatigued, and began to run temperatures up to 101˚F. He was evaluated by his nephrologist, who diagnosed acute kidney transplant rejection.

Scenario 4: A 65-year-old obese African American male patient presents to his HCP with crampy left lower quadrant pain, constipation, and fevers to 101˚ F. He has had multiple episodes like this one over the past 15 years and they always responded to bowel rest and oral antibiotics. He has refused to have the recommended colonoscopy even with his history of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (diverticulitis), sedentary lifestyle, and diet lacking in fiber. His paternal grandfather died of colon cancer back in the 1950s as well. He finally underwent colonoscopy after his acute diverticulitis resolved. Colonoscopy revealed multiple polyps that were retrieved, and the pathology was positive for adenocarcinoma of the colon.

Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:

  • Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.
  • Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
  • Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2.

Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum is a type of cancer that is initiated inside the cells that are responsible for forming glands that produce mucus. This mucus is produced to aid in the lubrication of the rectum and colon. Patients who are positive for Adenocarcinoma of the colon exhibit signs and symptoms such as a change in bowel movements, loss of weight, presence of blood in the stool and a feeling of being tired all the time. The major cause of this disease is old age, genetic disorders, and lifestyle factors. People who engage in activities such as smoking, alcohol abuse, poor diet, obesity and lack of physical activity are at a higher risk of contracting the disease (Kulke et al.,2015).  Moreover, old age and being male has also been proven to be probable risk factors. The 65-year old African American patient may have presented the symptoms provided due to his old age and being male.

Mutations in the pair of genes (POLE and POLD1) have all been associated with the development of Adenocarcinoma of the colon. Most deaths relating to colon cancer have also been linked to the metastatic disease. A metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1(MACC1) gene has been isolated as the one responsible for contributing to the metastatic disease. It has a transcriptional factor that influences how the hepatocyte growth factor is expressed. These two genes are responsible for the proliferation, scattering, and invasion of cancer cells. Moreover, they are responsible for the growth of tumors (Maliha, Krittiya, Aneeqa, Wai & Scott,2017)

Colorectal cancer originates from epithelial cells lining of the rectum present in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs as a result of mutations that occur in the Wnt signaling pathway hence increasing the signaling activity (Lin, Chang, Liou, Su, Tsao, & Huang,2018). These mutations can both be acquired or inherited. Its immunosuppression procedure involves mutation of the APC gene. This gene prevents the accumulation of β-catenin protein. In the absence of the APC, β-catenin can accumulate and move to the nucleus then activate the arrangement of proto-oncogenes. Even though these genes are crucial for stem cell renewal, they can also lead to cancer when expresses inappropriately at high levels.

The use of nursing theories assignment References

Kulke MH, Shah MH, Benson AB rd., Bergsland E, Berlin JD, Blaszkowsky LS, et al (2015). Neuroendocrine tumors, version 1. J Natl Compr Canc Netw .2015;13:78-108.

Lin KH, Chang NJ, Liou LR, Su MS, Tsao MJ. &Huang ML. (2018). Metachronous adenocarcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon. Formos J Surg [serial online]; 51:76-80. Available from: http://www.e-fjs.org/text.asp?2018/51/2/76/231140

Maliha K, Krittiya, Aneeqa S, Wai C, & Scott K, (2017).  Early-Onset Signet-Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Case Reports in Oncological Medicine. Volume 2017 |Article ID 2832180 | 7 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2832180

Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of cells and cell behavior is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. But some diseases can be complex in nature, with a variety of factors and circumstances impacting their emergence and severity.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond isolated cell behavior. Genes, the environments in which cell processes operate, the impact of patient characteristics, and racial and ethnic variables all can have an important impact.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero Images

An understanding of the signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify cell, gene, and/or process elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

The Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:

  • Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.
  • Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
  • Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

By Day 7 of Week 2

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Module 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Module 1 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Module 1 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Module 1 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2

To participate in this Assignment:

Module 1 Assignment

What’s Coming Up in Module 2?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In Module 2, you will analyze processes related to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. To do this, you will analyze alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact physiological functioning and altered physiology.

Week 3 Knowledge Check: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

In the Week 3 Knowledge Check, you will demonstrate your understanding of the topics covered during Module 2. This Knowledge Check will be composed of a series of questions related to specific scenarios provided. It is highly recommended that you review the Learning Resources in their entirety prior to taking the Knowledge Check, since the resources cover the topics addressed. Plan your time accordingly.

Next Module

To go to the next Module:

Module 2

Week 2: Altered Physiology

With a place squarely in the spotlight for patients diagnosed with all manner of disease, APRNs must demonstrate not only support and compassion, but expertise to guide patients’ understanding of diagnoses and treatment plans.

This expertise goes beyond an understanding of disease and sciences, such as cellular pathophysiology. APRNs must become experts in their patients, understanding their medical backgrounds, pertinent characteristics, and other variables that can be factors in their diagnoses and treatments.

This week, you examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, and the impact they have on altered physiology.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
  • Analyze alterations in the immune system that result in disease processes
  • Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

Learning Resources

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McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  •  Chapter 1: Cellular Biology; Summary Review
  •  Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents(pp. 46-61; begin again with Manifestations of Cellular Injury pp. 83-97); Summary Review
  • Chapter 3: The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases,
  • Chapter 4: Genes and Genetic Diseases (stop at Elements of formal genetics); Summary Review
  • Chapter 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases (stop at Genetics of common diseases); Summary Review
  • Chapter 7: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing
  • Chapter 8: Adaptive Immunity (stop at Generation of clonal diversity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 9: Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation (stop at Deficiencies in immunity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 10: Infection (stop at Infectious parasites and protozoans); (start at HIV); Summary Review
  • Chapter 11: Stress and Disease (stop at Stress, illness & coping); Summary Review
  • Chapter 12: Cancer Biology (stop at Resistance to destruction); Summary Review
  • Chapter 13: Cancer Epidemiology (stop at Environmental-Lifestyle factors); Summary Review

Note: You previously read these chapters in Week 1 and you are encouraged to review once again for this week.

Justiz-Vaillant, A. A., & Zito, P. M. (2019). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions. In StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/

Credit Line: Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. (2019, June 18). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/. Used with permission of Stat Pearls.
Note: This article was presented in the Week 1 resources. If you read it previously you are encouraged to review it this week.

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology – Week 2 (8m)

Immunity and Inflammation

Khan Academy (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology  | Health & medicine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXSuEIMrPQk  

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Soo, P. (2018, July 28). Pathophysiology Ch 10 alterations in immune function [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz0wx1-jTds   

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 37 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #1

MedCram. (2012, April 28). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wMEMhvrQxE

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #2

MedCram. (2012, April 29). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly | 2 of 8 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmEeKVTpOKI  

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Hyponatremia

MedCram. (2017, December 23). Hyponatremia explained clearly [LK1] (remastered) – Electrolyte imbalances [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLajK5Vy55M

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 3, 7, and 8 that relate to alterations in immunity, hyponatremia, and acid/base balance.

Note: To access the online resources included with the text, you need to complete the FREE online registration that is located at https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student

To Register to View the Content

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student
  2. Enter the name of the textbook, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, or ISBN 9780323654395 (name of text without the edition number) in the Search textbox.
  3. Complete the registration process.

To View the Content for This Text

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/
  2. Click on Student Site.
  3. Type in your username and password.
  4. Click on the Login button.
  5. Click on the plus sign icon for Resources on the left side of the screen.
  6. Click on the name of the textbook for this course.
  7. Expand the menu on the left to locate all the chapters.
  8. Navigate to the desired content (checklists, videos, animations, etc.).

Note: Clicking on the URLs in the APA citations for the Resources from the textbook will not link directly to the desired online content. Use the online menu to navigate to the desired content.

Based on the required readings for this week, previous lessons and experience as a nurse, it is evident that nursing theory is necessary for nurses to offer quality care and navigate patient needs in the ever transforming and complex nursing profession. Nursing theory provides a framework that guides the nursing practice in using concepts and relationships in patient evaluations and interventions (Butts & Rich, 2018). If nursing practice lacked theory, possibly, there will be loss of separation and clear distinction of the profession. Society has historically considered nursing as a vocational occupation and not a profession where nurses are expected to carry orders by physicians and clinical officers, especially in developing countries, without any form of accountability. However, through the development of theory as proposed by Nightingale in her notes over a century back, nursing is now an evolving profession and academic discipline as well as a science. Pioneers in the profession established nursing theories and models to emphasize the role of nursing profession in enhancing patient outcomes and quality healthcare delivery. Nurses possess critical thinking and scientific knowledge as well as ideas that they can use to improve patient care delivery (Gilbert, 2020). They can develop individualized interventions focused on health promotion, disease prevention and long-term care for patients with terminal conditions.

Nursing theories help to instill identity in nurses, enabling patients and other healthcare providers and professionals as well as managers to appreciate nurses’ roles and individual contributions to healthcare promotion and patient quality care. Nursing theories allow nurses to offer patient-centered care, utilize evidence-based practice interventions in health promotion, and development of professional values and work ethics to attain better patient outcomes (Younas & Quennell, 2019). Nursing theory empowers nurses to understand the transforming health system, address the expanding care demand and improve professional knowledge and skills to attain better patient care. Evidence shows that the use of theory provides structure and organization to nursing knowledge and offers a systemic means of collecting information and data to describe, explain, and predict trends that will shape the nursing practice like the increased of health technologies through telemedicine among others.

The use of nursing theories assignment References

Butts, B. J. & Rich, L. K. (2018). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing

practice (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Gilbert, H. A. (2020). Florence Nightingale’s Environmental Theory and its influence on

contemporary infection control. Collegian, 27(6), 626–633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2020.09.006

Younas, A., & Quennell, S. (2019). Usefulness of nursing theory‐guided practice: an integrative

review. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 33(3), 540-555.

DOI: 10.1111/scs.12670.

 

I worked in the emergency department and every patient that enters the door is unpredictable and unique. Some parts of the day it can be so slow when it is mostly consisting of minor cases but there are days that you get back to back critical patients. The feeling can be overwhelming and the stress level is high. ER nurses are prone to experience a “burn out” phase. It is best defined as the state of mental, physical, and emotional exhaustion caused by sustained work-related stressors such as long hours, the pressure of quick decision-making, and the strain of caring for patients who may have poor outcomes (USAHS, 2020). This takes a toll on the quality of patient care because of the pressure that its creating. There are findings that showed alarming new graduate nurse burnnout rates and suggest that efforts should be made to prevent this from occuring (Spence Laschinger & Fida, 2014). This is due to the fact that they have less clinical experience in handling complex cases and patient interaction.

The theory that is best suited for this topic is Benner’s Novice to Expert Nursing Theory. This theory presents a systematic way of understanding how a learner whether a student, new or seasoned nurse develops skills and understanding of a practice situation/event over time (Benner, 2020). It aims to explain the 5 stages of proficiency namely, novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. This theory does not imply that one nurse is academically or morally better than the other, rather it just gives a category to a nurse’s skill and knowledge with regard to their level of competency.

The implications of Benner’s Novice to Expert Theory in our current practice is that it can assist nurse leaders/managers reduce burn out rates within their department. First, by identifying which category their RN staff falls into, they can be guided on what type of patients to assign. For example, a novice nurse that’s on her first day on the job shouldnt be assigned alone on a critical patient who is on a ventilator, along with 3 IV drips, orogastric tube, and many more. This can be too nerve wracking for someone with little experience. Second, through constant evaluation of compentency, nurse leaders can determine if the staff has moved on from a novice to an advanced beginner category and onto the next. Through this, you can gauge if the nurse can show independency on certain skill performance. Lastly, after identification of nurses that fall on the expert level, they can be asked to be key resources in the unit and provide assistance to those nurses that need help.

References

University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences (USAHS). (2020). Nurse burnout: Risks, causes, and precautions. https://www.usa.edu/blog/nurse-burnout/

Spence Laschinger, H. & Fida, R. (2014). New nurses burnout and workplace wellbeing: The influence of authentic leadership and psychological capital. Burnout Research, 1(1), 19-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2014.03.002

Benner, P. (2020). From novice to expert. Nursology. https://nursology.net/nurse-theorists-and-their-work/from-novice-to-expert/

The use of nursing theories assignment Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

The use of nursing theories assignment Content

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis, examining the patient symptoms presented in the case study. Be sure to address the following:

Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.

Points Range: 28 (28%) – 30 (30%)

The response accurately and thoroughly describes the patient symptoms.

The response includes accurate, clear, and detailed reasons, with explanation for the symptoms supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

Points Range: 25 (25%) – 27 (27%)

The response describes the patient symptoms.

The response includes accurate reasons, with explanation for the symptoms supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

Points Range: 23 (23%) – 24 (24%)

The response describes the patient symptoms in a manner that is vague or inaccurate.

The response includes reasons for the symptoms, with explanations that are vague or based on inappropriate evidence/research.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 22 (22%)

The response describes the patient symptoms in a manner that is vague and inaccurate, or the description is missing.

The response does not include reasons for the symptoms, or the explanations are vague or based on inappropriate or no evidence/research.

Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease. Points Range: 23 (23%) – 25 (25%)

The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific analysis of the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.

Points Range: 20 (20%) – 22 (22%)

The response includes an accurate analysis of the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.

Points Range: 18 (18%) – 19 (19%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate analysis of the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate analysis of the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease is missing.

Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems. Points Range: 28 (28%) – 30 (30%)

The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

Points Range: 25 (25%) – 27 (27%)

The response includes an accurate explanation of the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

Points Range: 23 (23%) – 24 (24%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused—neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive.

Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time.

No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.

Written Expression and Formatting – English Writing Standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.

Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.

Total PoScenario 2: A 42-year-old man with Swelling of his Right CalfScenario 2: A 42-year-old man with Swelling of his Right Calfints: 100