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Develop a presentation on preventing and decreasing the rates of Tuberculosis in Uganda

Develop a presentation on preventing and decreasing the rates of Tuberculosis in Uganda

Introduction

Objectives:

Provide; Background information regarding TB,

Population Impacted,

Striking facts about TB

Research and scientific solutions addressing TB,

Policy solution

Recommend Solutions

TB presents a public health problem in Uganda. According to Kizito et al. (2021), during 2019 an estimated 88,000 people were diagnosed with TB in Uganda, and an approximated 15,600 individuals passed away. While men make up a majority of TB cases, approximately 56% in the country, children account for 13%.  During 2019, the National TB and Leprosy Program (NTLP) recorded 65, 878 TB cases of TB in Uganda. Batte et al. (2021) indicates that this number has continued increasing since then due to lack of appropriate prevention and treatment approaches. This presentation discusses approaches that have implemented to prevent and decrease the rates of Tuberculosis in Uganda.  This paper will present the background information regarding TB, Population Impacted, Striking facts, research and scientific solutions addressing TB, policy solution and recommendation regarding the appropriate measures to prevent and reduce TB in Uganda.

Background

TB presents a public health problem in Uganda.

In 2019 88,000 people were diagnosed with TB

The National TB and Leprosy Program (NTLP) recorded 65, 878 TB cases of TB in Uganda and have continued increasing since then.

National Strategic Plan (NSP) 2020/2021-2024/2025 has developed approaches to reduce the Spread of TB

TB presents a public health problem in Uganda. According to Aturinde et al. (2019), during 2019 an estimated 88,000 people were diagnosed with TB in Uganda, and an approximated 15,600 individuals passed away. Using the new National Strategic Plan (NSP) 2020/2021-2024/2025, the NTLP intends to handle the persisting challenges with Tuberculosis in Uganda. Generally the goal the NCP is to minimize TB incidence by 20%. To attain this objective, the NTLP centers on various aspects including strengthening community systems with a focus on reaching high risk populations and scaling-up TB preventive therapy (TPT), improving the adoption of technologies and medicines, endorsing information management, strengthening supply chain management, and enhancing leadership, accountability, multisectrol partnership, and resource mobilization for TB.

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Population Impacted

Individuals between 25-40 years

The Elderly

People with HIV

Individuals living in Kampala

According to Batte et al. (2021), 80, 000 people in Uganda develop TB every year. Nevertheless, 4% remain undetected. Increased rates of TB infection are often observed in young individuals ranging from 25-40 years.  Tuberculosis case notification rates in Uganda are often higher men than in women. Most people diagnosed with TB are often Kampala. Kizito et al. (2021) indicates that Kampala is overly populated City in Uganda.  Studies in regard to the spread of TB in Uganda indicate that location in Kampala such as the New Tax Park record the highest number of TB cases. Such locations are often occupied with young individuals seeking employment or working (Karamagi et al., 2018). Besides the young population, another group that is risk of attaining TB is the elderly people with HIV. This group is at risk due to reduced immune system which exposes them to different illnesses. The elderly are often the most affected since they lack the knowledge and understanding regarding the prevention or the spread of the TB infection.

Striking Facts

Uganda is ranked as the 30th country with the highest burden of Tuberculosis and HIV.

Uganda has an approximated TB incidence of 200 cases in every 100,000 population.

The mortality rates is 35 in every 100, 000 population

Uganda is ranked as the 30th country with the highest burden of Tuberculosis and HIV, with an approximated TB incidence of 200 cases in every 100,000 population. The mortality rates was 35 in every 100, 000 population (Batte et al., 2021). The percentage of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and rifampin-resistant TB among new and previously treated Tuberculosis cases is approximated at 1% and 12% in 2018 and 2019 respectively.

Research and Scientific Solutions

TB screening

Endorsing cough hygiene and respiratory protection.

Separating and fast tracing of coughers for diagnosis and treatment

Scientific researches indicate that TB can be prevented and reduced through different approaches including TB screening, endorsing cough hygiene and respiratory protection, separating and fast tracing of coughers for diagnosis and treatment.

TB Screening

Tuberculosis skin tests

Tuberculosis blood tests

There are two types of tests that often utilized to detect the presence of TB bacteria in the body. These include Tuberculosis skin test and Tuberculosis blood tests.  If an individual is diagnosed with the TB bacteria, it is necessary to conduct other tests to observe if the individual has latent TB infection or TB illness.

Endorsing Cough Hygiene

Covering mouth when coughing

Remaining at home after seeking medications

TB is an illness that is often spread through breathing in air that is contaminated with the TB bacteria. When a person who is infected coughs in a public place he/she is advised to cover their mouth using a piece of cloth or their elbows. Moreover, individuals that are experiencing increased coughing are advised to remain at home after seeking proper medication.

Fast tracing

To prevent the disease from further spreading

To distinguish individuals at risk

Fast tracing is essential since it plays a significant role in curbing the spread of the infection before it transmits to other individuals. According to Gomes et al. (2021), most individuals fail to know if they are infected with TB or the person next to them is infected unless they start presenting later signs and symptoms including increased cough rates. Thus, tracing an individual with TB will assist in identifying the people infected or those at the risk getting infected.

Policy Solution

Endorse for enhanced ventilation in public places and transport services

Encourage TB Screening through TB education conferences

According to USAID, the first policy solution is to endorse for enhanced ventilation in public places and transport services. Kampala is one of the most populated cities in Uganda and the city that records the highest number of TB infections. Thus, improving ventilations in public places and transport will play a significant role in reducing the spread of TB, given that is an airborne illness that can rapidly transmits in areas with poor ventilations (Batte et al., 2021). Another policy solution is procuring and supplying management of PPE, and participating in other sector involved including the Ministry of Education and Sports.

Summary

TB presents a public health problem in Uganda. According to Gomes et al. (2021), during 2019 an estimated 88,000 people were diagnosed with TB in Uganda, and an approximated 15,600 individuals passed away. While men make up a majority of TB cases, approximately 56% in the country, children account for 13%.

v Increased rates of TB infection are often observed in young individuals ranging from 25-40 years, the elderly and people with HIV. Uganda is ranked as the 30th country with the highest burden of Tuberculosis and HIV, with and approximated TB incidence of 200 cases in every 100,000 population (Batte et al., 2021).

vScientific researches indicate that TB can be prevented and reduced through different approaches including TB screening and endorsing cough hygiene. According to USAID, the first policy solution is to endorse for enhanced ventilation in public places and transport services.

Recommended Solutions

Ensuring individuals are aware of different measures they can prevent and reduce this illness

Encouraging individuals to consider TB screenings.

The best solution to reduce the spread of TB in Uganda is ensuring individuals are aware of different measures they can prevent and reduce this illness. For instance when individuals are more aware of TB they will learn to follow prescriptions and preventive measures such as enhancing ventilations and avoiding crowded places.  Moreover, another approach that will have an impact in reducing TB in Uganda is encouraging individuals to consider TB screenings. Through this, it will be easy to early diagnose the illness and treat it before it spreads to other people.

Conclusion

TB presents a public health problem in Uganda. An estimated 88,000 people are diagnosed with TB in Uganda, and an approximated 15,600 individuals pass away. The most affected population includes the youths between 25-40 years, the elderly and individuals with HIV. Scientific researches indicate that TB can be prevented and reduced through different approaches including TB screening and endorsing cough hygiene. According to USAID, the first policy solution is to endorse for enhanced ventilation in public places and transport services.

Concluding statement

Uganda is recording increased cases of TB due to lack of awareness and proper treatment procedures. Thus, the first approach to prevent and reduce TB in Uganda is educating people about TB and endorsing for TB screening.

References

Aturinde, A., Farnaghi, M., Pilesjö, P., & Mansourian, A. (2019). Spatial analysis of

HIV-TB co-clustering in Uganda. BMC infectious diseases19(1), 1-10.   https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12879-019-4246-2

Batte, C., Namusobya, M. S., Kirabo, R., Mukisa, J., Adakun, S., & Katamba, A. (2021).

Prevalence and factors associated with non-adherence to multi-drug resistant   tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment at Mulago National Referral Hospital,   Kampala, Uganda. African Health Sciences21(1), 238-47.   https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ahs/article/view/206092

Gomes, I., Reja, M., Shrestha, S., Pennington, J., Jo, Y., Baik, Y., … & Dowdy, D.

(2021). Incorporating patient reporting patterns to evaluate spatially targeted TB

interventions. Annals of epidemiology54, 7-10.   https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1047279720304105

Karamagi, E., Sensalire, S., Muhire, M., Kisamba, H., Byabagambi, J., Rahimzai, M., … & Birabwa,

  1. (2018). Improving TB case notification in northern Uganda: evidence of a quality improvement-guided active case finding intervention. BMC health services research18(1),   1-12. https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-018-3786-2

Kizito, E., Musaazi, J., Mutesasira, K., Twinomugisha, F., Namwanje, H., Kiyemba, T., … & Zawedde-

Muyanja, S. (2021). Risk factors for mortality among patients diagnosed with multi-drug   resistant tuberculosis in Uganda-a case-control study. BMC infectious diseases21(1