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NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems

NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems

Grand Canyon University NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems-Step -By-Step Guide

 

This guide will demonstrate how to complete the Grand Canyon University NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems assignment based on general principles of academic writing. Here, we will show you the A, B, Cs of completing an academic paper, irrespective of the instructions. After guiding you through what to do, the guide will leave one or two sample essays at the end to highlight the various sections discussed below.

 

How to Research and Prepare for NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems

 

Whether one passes or fails an academic assignment such as the Grand Canyon University NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems depends on the preparation done beforehand. The first thing to do once you receive an assignment is to quickly skim through the requirements. Once that is done, start going through the instructions one by one to clearly understand what the instructor wants. The most important thing here is to understand the required format—whether it is APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.

 

After understanding the requirements of the paper, the next phase is to gather relevant materials. The first place to start the research process is the weekly resources. Go through the resources provided in the instructions to determine which ones fit the assignment. After reviewing the provided resources, use the university library to search for additional resources. After gathering sufficient and necessary resources, you are now ready to start drafting your paper.

 

How to Write the Introduction for NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems

The introduction for the Grand Canyon University NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems is where you tell the instructor what your paper will encompass. In three to four statements, highlight the important points that will form the basis of your paper. Here, you can include statistics to show the importance of the topic you will be discussing. At the end of the introduction, write a clear purpose statement outlining what exactly will be contained in the paper. This statement will start with “The purpose of this paper…” and then proceed to outline the various sections of the instructions.

 

How to Write the Body for NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems

 

After the introduction, move into the main part of the NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems assignment, which is the body. Given that the paper you will be writing is not experimental, the way you organize the headings and subheadings of your paper is critically important. In some cases, you might have to use more subheadings to properly organize the assignment. The organization will depend on the rubric provided. Carefully examine the rubric, as it will contain all the detailed requirements of the assignment. Sometimes, the rubric will have information that the normal instructions lack.

 

Another important factor to consider at this point is how to do citations. In-text citations are fundamental as they support the arguments and points you make in the paper. At this point, the resources gathered at the beginning will come in handy. Integrating the ideas of the authors with your own will ensure that you produce a comprehensive paper. Also, follow the given citation format. In most cases, APA 7 is the preferred format for nursing assignments.

 

How to Write the Conclusion for NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems

 

After completing the main sections, write the conclusion of your paper. The conclusion is a summary of the main points you made in your paper. However, you need to rewrite the points and not simply copy and paste them. By restating the points from each subheading, you will provide a nuanced overview of the assignment to the reader.

 

How to Format the References List for NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems

 

The very last part of your paper involves listing the sources used in your paper. These sources should be listed in alphabetical order and double-spaced. Additionally, use a hanging indent for each source that appears in this list. Lastly, only the sources cited within the body of the paper should appear here.

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Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. It is a leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries mostly sub-Saharan Africa, where young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. According to the 2021 World Malaria Report: Nearly half the world’s population lives in areas at risk of malaria transmission in 87 countries and territories. In 2020, malaria caused an estimated 241 million clinical episodes, and 627,000 deaths. An estimated 95% of deaths in 2020 were in the WHO African Region (WHO, 2016). The impact of malaria takes its toll on the poorest – those least able to afford preventative measures and medical treatment. The impact of malaria is not only felt in terms of the human suffering and death it causes, but also by the significant economic cost and burden to both families/ households and national economies. Malaria slows economic growth and development and perpetuates the vicious cycle of poverty.

The COVID-19 pandemic has put extreme stress on the health care workforce in the United States, leading to workforce shortages as well as increased health care worker burnout, exhaustion, and trauma. These pandemic-related challenges have taken place in a context of significant preexisting workforce shortages and maldistribution, as well as in a workforce where burnout, stress, and mental health problems (including an ongoing risk of post-traumatic stress disorder) were already significant problems. Many health care workers who were not directly caring for COVID-19 patients faced being furloughed or having their hours reduced, particularly early in the pandemic.

NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems
NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems

In May 2020, approximately 15 percent of hospital workers reported being unable to work at some time in the past 4 weeks because their employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic, compared to 23 percent of non-hospital health care workers. These numbers declined to 1-2 percent by the end of 2020. Total employment in the health care industry declined during the early months of the pandemic but has gradually recovered since summer 2020. The relative decline in employment was substantially larger for ambulatory care employees compared to hospital employees (Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 2022).

Global health is the goal of improving health for all people in all nations by promoting wellness and eliminating avoidable disease, disability, and death. It can be attained by combining population-based health promotion and disease prevention measures with individual-level clinical care (IOM, 2009). Healthcare delivery systems work collaboratively to address global health concerns by working with partners around the world to develop ways of improving healthcare for their specific area. They also share information about known disease and public health issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) is involved in improving quality of care globally. They are committed to achieving better health for people all over the world.

References

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the US Commitment to Global Health. (2009). The US commitment to global health: recommendations for the public and private sectors.

World Health Organization. (2016). World malaria report 2015. World Health Organization.

One of the greatest global health issues is diabetes which is a diseases that results in elevated blood sugar glucose levels which leads to the damage of the heart, blood vessels, and the eyes (WHO, 2020). About 422 million people across the world are affected by the disease with a majority of them being from low and middle income countries which makes it difficult for the condition to be controlled due to the lack of access to resources and this ultimately leads to an increase in deaths with about 1.6 million being reported annually (WHO, 2020).

The disease poses a major challenge for healthcare which leads to a decrease in the quality and life expectancy since the disease if not managed results in complications that end up consuming most of the resources required for healthcare (Rosella, 2016). The complications patients end up facing drives up the cost of care since the complications become difficult to control and various essential services are therefore neglected since all the resources are channeled towards controlling diabetes complications.

When dealing with global issues, healthcare professionals should focus on forming partnerships. Partnerships of this manner often require multidisciplinary teams which provide the required resources and skills. Various stakeholders should be incorporated in the management of global health challenges, for instance, foreign governments, academic and research institutions, non-governmental, and business organizations. The partnerships should always be representative of the different skills they bring to the table. Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) plays a regulatory role of the different interventions developed by different agencies, for instance, during the development of the COVID-19, the WHO played a key role in the vaccine development and collaborated with various agencies to ensure it was safe.

NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2 Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systemsReferences

Rosella, L. C. (2016). Impact of diabetes on healthcare costs in a population-based cohort” a cost analysis. Diabetic Medicine.

WHO. (2020). Diabetes. Retrieved from who.int: Https://www.who.int/health-topics/diabetes#tab=tab_1

HIV, the virus that causes AIDS has become one of the world’s most serious health and development challenges since the first cases were reported in 1981. Approximately 76 million people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic. Today, there are approximately 38 million people currently living with HIV, and tens of millions of people have died of AIDS-related causes since the beginning of the epidemic (UNAIDS, 2020). HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) A virus that is transmitted through certain body fluids and weakens the immune system by destroying cells that fight disease and infection, specifically CD4 cells (often called T cells). If not managed properly, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells in the body, making it more difficult for the immune system to fight off infections and other diseases. HIV can lead to the development of AIDS, “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (UNAIDS Press release, 2020).

Sub-Saharan Africa, with more than two-thirds of all people living with HIV globally, is the hardest hit region in the world, followed by Asia and the Pacific. The Caribbean as well as Eastern Europe and Central Asia are also heavily affected. However, HIV infections in the United States continue to be a major public health crisis. An estimated 1.2 million Americans are living with HIV, and 1 out of 8 people with HIV do not know they have it. Although recent data show that annual HIV infections declined 18% in the U.S. from 2008 to 2014, HIV continues to spread (CDC, 2017). It primarily affects those in their most productive years, and it not only affects the health of individuals, but also impacts households, communities, and the development and economic growth of nations.

Many of the countries hardest hit by HIV also face serious challenges due to other infectious diseases, food insecurity, and additional global health and development problems, it also contributes to increases in health expenditures in both the public and private sectors and may divert resources towards the higher levels of care needed for AIDS patients. Recent scientific advances have demonstrated that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) not only preserves the health of people living with HIV but also reduces their risk of transmitting HIV to others by 93% (Cohen.m. et al.,2016).

Global health issues require global cooperation in response, planning, prevention, preparedness, and care that reflects health equity issues among nations. These issues require complex interprofessional and interagency cooperation and solutions that involve governments, non-profits, and many times include private companies and foundations. This entails them working together, sharing resources, and combining talents, this in turn enhances the opportunities and likelihood for achieving positive health outcomes. CDC is one of the stakeholders of health, their roles include controlling the introduction and spread of infectious diseases, and provides consultation and assistance to other nations and international agencies to assist in improving their disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion activities.

ALSO READ: Compare vulnerable populations NRS 428 Topic 3 DQ 1

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017). CDC Fact Sheet HIV Incidence: Estimated Annual Infections in the U.S., 2008-2014, Overall and by Transmission Route. February 2017. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/factsheets/hiv-incidence-fact-sheet_508.pdf

Cohen M, Chen Y, McCauley M, et al (2016). Antiretroviral Therapy for the prevention of HIV-1 Transmission. NEJM. 2016;375(9):830–9.

UNAIDS. 2020 Global AIDS Update: Seizing the Moment; July 2020. UNAIDS. AIDSinfo website; accessed July 2020, available at: http://aidsinfo.unaids.org/. UNAIDS. Core Epidemiology Slides; July 2020.

UNAIDS. Press release (2020): UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic shows that 2020 targets will not be met because of deeply unequal success; COVID-19 risks blowing HIV progress way off course; July 2020.

The international community and the United States are increasingly emphasizing global health, but there is currently no standard, agreed-upon definition of global health, and there are several different definitions. The Institute of Medicine defines global health as promoting wellness and eliminating avoidable diseases, disabilities, and deaths throughout all nations. To prevent, detect, and respond to any risks relating to global health security, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collaborates with other U.S. agencies and international organizations.

Infections like tuberculosis (TB) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Approximately 10 million new cases of TB occurred in 2018 and 1.5 million deaths were caused by TB, a drop of 2% and 5%, respectively (CDC, 2020). The Future Role of the United States in Global Health discusses global health priorities in light of both current and emerging threats. HIV, tuberculosis (TB), malaria, antibiotic resistance, and the possibility of pandemic influenza are all persistent concerns (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2017).

A global health issue that I selected that affects the international community’s health is tuberculosis (TB). An infectious disease spread through the air, tuberculosis (TB) is primarily a lung disease that is caused by bacteria. Active TB can be transferred from person to person and is a significant source of disease and death around the world. TB has a latent period that can exist in otherwise healthy individuals who show no symptoms and cannot pass the bacteria to others. People with weakened immune systems, such as those who are immunocompromised because of HIV, are also frequently and seriously threatened by it.

Although the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination is only partially successful in avoiding some major TB problems in children, additional vaccines are currently being developed. TB transmission is currently not prevented by any vaccines. Anti-tuberculous drugs are no longer effective against TB because resistant strains have emerged. The world’s thirty low- and middle-income countries comprise what is known as “high burden countries (HBC),” which account for approximately 87% of new cases of TB per year. (Global Health Policy, 2022).

“CDC” is an agency of the U.S. federal government responsible for global and national health protection. The United States participates directly or indirectly in international programs that have a significant impact on the nation’s health, such as those led by the World Health Organization (WHO). As people travel more widely, it is more likely that a health issue will be transported from one country to another. National and global health security guardians implement policy and preventive measures to control and eradicate threats on a national, regional, and international level (Green, 2018). The CDC collaborates and partners with governing organizations, such as WHO to conduct a wide range of activities to find, cure, and prevent TB.

The CDC ensures a fast and accurate diagnosis of TB. Lab networks and surveillance systems must be strengthened; they diagnose TB among children and people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) using the most effective methods available and are also researching better, less toxic treatments that cure patients faster. Furthermore, they are steadily increasing efforts to eradicate TB and prevent the development of drug resistance by increasing TB prevention and infection control worldwide and by ending TB transmission in healthcare facilities. The CDC provides testing for HIV among TB patients and encourages HIV treatment for people with HIV and TB co-infection. AIDS patients, whose weakened immune systems render them more susceptible to TB, should receive further TB prevention treatment (CDC, 2020).

References:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Global health. Retrieved June 27th, 2022, from

https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/newsroom/topics/tb/index.html#:~:text=What%20is%20the%20global%20impact,1.5%20million%20lives%20each%20year.

Global Health Policy. (2022). The U.S. Government Engagement in Global Health: A Primer. Retrieved June 27th, 2022, from

The U.S. Government Engagement in Global Health: A Primer – Report

Green, S. Z. (2018). Community & Public Health: The Future of Health Care. In Grand Canyon University (Ed.), Epidemiology and Global Health.

https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs427vn/community-and-public-health-the-future-of-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/2

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Global health and the future role of the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Public health threats or events across the world can affect the health of the American population. According to Healthy People (2020), global health is increasingly playing a crucial role in the security of the U.S and that of the world at large. As the world becomes increasingly globalized in terms of commerce and global travels, it is essential to think of health in the global context. Today, there are many global health issues that directly or indirectly affect the health and wellness of the American population, one of which is the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory illness caused by a new strain of coronavirus that causes disease in human beings. Since the first identification of this disease in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the disease has spread across the world, resulting in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Pokhrel & Chhetri (2021) assert that, in the U.S and other countries across the globe, the disease has exposed persistent inequalities by sex, geographical location, race/ethnicity, age, and income. The disease has not only presented an unprecedented challenge to public health but has also led to a dramatic loss of human life in the U.S and across the globe.

The government of the U.S, in collaboration with such agencies as WHO and CDC, partners with other countries across the world to address health issues and prepare for pandemic or emerging diseases. Particularly, CDC works with countries and states internationally and nationally, respectively, to detect, prevent, and respond to any emerging threats to global health. The agency is actively funding territorial, local, tribal, and state public health organizations to meet the challenges of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

References

Healthy People. (2020). Global health. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/global-health

Pokhrel, S., & Chhetri, R. (2021). A literature review on impact of COVID-19 pandemic on teaching and learning. Higher Education for the Future8(1), 133-141. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2347631120983481

Expanding international trade introduces risks, these include global health issues and risks which effect the health of United States either directly or indirectly through outbreaks of foodborne infections, poor quality pharmaceuticals, or contaminated consumer goods (Healthy People, 2021). The Center for Global Health (CGH) responding when and where health threats arise, working to protect Americans from dangerous and costly public health threats, including COVID-19, vaccine-preventable diseases, HIV, TB, and malaria (Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC), 2022).

Malaria has killed billions of people globally over centuries, where according to the latest world malaria report, there was an increase from 241 million cases of malaria in 2020 from 227 million in 2019 (World health organization (WHO), 2021). In 2020, half of the world’s population was at risk of malaria, with infants, children under 5 years of age, pregnant women, immune compromised patients, migrant workers, mobile populations and travelers being in the high-risk population groups (World health organization, 2021). Many prevention tools and strategies including effective vector control, which is the use of the two core interventions, the insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), and the use of preventive antimalarial drugs have been tried and used to combat the impact in reducing the global burden of this disease.

Preventive chemotherapies are safe, cost-effective medications used to complement ongoing malaria control activities, including vector control measures, prompt diagnosis of suspected malaria, and treatment of confirmed cases with antimalarial medicines (World health organization, 2021). Just recently, on 6th October 2021, the CDC who provided technical leadership and advice to the U.S. Global Malaria Coordinator approved the first malaria vaccine (RTS,S/AS01) to be given. This new intervention is supported by the WHO as it has been shown to significantly reduce malaria, especially among young children, it has therefore been recommended as a broad use RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine among children living in regions with moderate to high P. falciparum malaria transmission.

Malaria disease is preventable, but communities, countries and low-income families do not have access to these resources, using evidence-based information and working collaborating to achieve this goal are the following stakeholders, U.S. Global Malaria Coordinator, CDC, USAID in 24 African countries and three programs in the Greater Mekong sub-Region, WHO, including, government, faith leaders, public, community, pharmaceuticals, schools, specialists, and research supporters.

Centers for disease control and prevention. (2022). Global health. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/index.html

Healthy People. (2021). Global Health.  Global Health | Healthy People 2020

World Health Organization. (2021). World malaria report. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240040496

COVID-19 Vaccination

The coronavirus pandemic is the most contemporary issue affecting the world. COVID-19 has claimed millions of lives while millions became infected by the deadly virus. The rising death and infection rates have prompted the need for vaccination. However, the global population has not fully accepted the need for the jab. Like other vaccination cases, people in different professional fields have gone against COVID-19 vaccination. Countries have put in place mandatory vaccination for managing the viral spread, although vaccinating workers and children has raised many concerns. Failure to vaccinate every person has positive and negative consequences. However, the government must consider the need to respect their rights concerning vaccination.

Healthcare delivery systems collaborate to enhance vaccination in the public domain. The major stakeholders involved are the healthcare providers who encouraged their workers to receive the jab (Biswas, Mustapha, Khubchandani, & Price, 2021). While nurses have been given mandatory measures to get vaccinated, the health facilities encourage them to consider vaccination to protect them, their families, and patients against COVID-19 infection spread. A section of nurses and other healthcare workers have refused to be vaccinated. However, healthcare providers explain to them about the negative implications of their decision. The collaborative processes between employers and employees help in finding the appropriate solution to this challenge.

The government is also involved in increasing the number of people vaccinated against COVID-19. While governments are pushing for mandatory vaccination, they have targeted employers to enable them achieve their agenda (Graeber, Schmidt-Petri, & Schröder, 2021). However, mandatory vaccination should only take place after series of meetings and awareness programs. These awareness campaigns would enlighten the public about the need to be vaccinated. The campaigns also guide people on how to improve their health by healthy eating and engaging in physical exercises. Collaborative healthcare would improve the delivery of healthcare, especially the COVID-19 vaccination.

References

Biswas, N., Mustapha, T., Khubchandani, J., & Price, J. H. (2021). The nature and extent of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in healthcare workers. Journal of community health46(6), 1244-1251.

Graeber, D., Schmidt-Petri, C., & Schröder, C. (2021). Attitudes on voluntary and mandatory vaccination against COVID-19: Evidence from Germany. PloS one16(5), e0248372.