coursework-banner

NR 443 RN Community Health Nursing Week 2 Project

NR 443 RN Community Health Nursing Week 2 Project

NR 443 RN Community Health Nursing Week 2 Project

Community Health Nursing

Communicable diseases have immense impact on population health. Nurses play crucial roles in implementing evidence-based interventions that address the prioritized and potential needs of the affected populations. Models such as health belief model guide nurses in implementing interventions that transform the health of their populations. Therefore, this essay examines HIV/AIDS, a communicable disease. It focuses on aspects such as its social determinants of health, reporting, epidemiological triangle and global impacts.

Chosen Communicable Disease

HIV is the selected communicable disease. It is a viral disease caused by HIV virus. The virus is mainly transmitted through contact with body fluids such as blood, semen, saliva, and breastfeeding. There is also vertical transmission in utero for the unborn fetuses. The risk factors associated with it include unprotected sex, sharing sharp objects, having sex with multiple partners, and drug abuse. The symptoms of HIV are varied. They include fever, headache, rash, malaise, lymphadenopathy, chronic diarrhea, opportunistic infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis, and night sweats (Liu et al., 2022). HIV is associated with several complications. They include HIV/AIDS, cytomegalovirus, pneumonia, cryptococcal meningitis, retinitis, tuberculosis, Kaposi Sarcoma, and cervical cancer. HIV does not have a cure. However, patients use antiretroviral medications to suppress to suppress the viral load, hence, enhanced immune status. Some demographics are increasingly predisposed to HIV as compared to others. Examples include men who have sex with other men, drug abusers, those with multiple sexual partners, and sex workers (Dambach et al., 2020). As a result, interventions to minimize the risk of HIV spread in this population should be adopted.

Why it is a Reportable Disease

HIV is a reportable disease. Healthcare providers and institutions report it since it is an epidemic. It has an increased risk of being spread to a larger population, translating into the need for its reporting to guide the implementation of prevention interventions. HIV is also reported to provide a true picture of its population impacts. Epidemiologists and community health nurses utilize the reported data to make informed decisions on the needed community and population-level strategies to curb further spread and ensuring the optimum community health and wellbeing (Pandey & Galvani, 2019). Healthcare providers and institutions report HIV cases to their respective state departments for health. The reporting is for the confirmed cases, those on treatment, and with undetected viral load.

Social Determinants of Health

Social determinants of health contribute to HIV spread in a population. Factors such as poverty, educational level, culture, employment status, access to healthcare services, and discrimination affect HIV spread in the population. Poverty contributes to disproportionate access to and utilization of the existing resources. The challenges that the population experiences predispose them to unhealthy behaviors such as substance and drug abuse and prostitution. Educational level affects other factors such as employment, income status, and access to healthcare services. Low educational level affects one’s awareness about healthy lifestyles and behaviors, hence, HIV. Culture also contributes to HIV spread in the population. Beliefs, values, and practices such as wife inheritance in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa increase the risk of HIV spread in the population. Access to quality healthcare services increases population’s awareness about HIV-related issues such as screening, early diagnosis, and treatment (Duarte et al., 2018; Gant et al., 2019). Poor access to healthcare services increases the risk of delays in diagnosis, treatment, and community sensitization about the disease.

Epidemiologic Triangle

The epidemiologic triangle is a model that is used to understand the relationship that exist between the host, environment, and agent in a disease. The triangle can be applied to HIV. Accordingly, the agent in HIV is HIV virus. Several environmental factors influence the spread of HIV virus from the infected to non-infected individuals. They include coming into contact with infected media such as blood, semen, and saliva during sexual intercourse, in utero, accidents, and sharing sharps. The environmental factors that heighten the viral spread include poverty, substance and drug abuse, unprotected sex, blood transfusion, pregnancy, and men that have sex with other men (Cui et al., 2020). The host for HIV virus is the infected person. The person spreads the infection when exposed to favorable environmental conditions.

Any Special Considerations

The epidemiological triangle is similar for all the populations affected or at a risk of HIV. However, the environmental factors differ according to the populations. For example, the environmental factors that increase the risk of viral spread among those engaging in unprotected sex with multiple partners may be largely attributed to contact with infected semen and vaginal fluids.

Importance of Demographic Data to Community Health

Demographic data is important to community health. First, the data provides insights into the potential social determinants of health in a population. An analysis of data on factors such as educational level and employment status enables community health nurses to predict the affordability and utilization of healthcare services in a population. Demographic data also guides the prioritization of community health projects. Community health nurses and other healthcare providers utilize demographic data to determine the crucial issues of need in their communities. They use the information in proposing and implementing interventions such as health education to promote the health of their populations. Lastly, community health nurses and other healthcare providers utilize demographic data to predict cause-effect relationship between exposures and outcomes (Khalifa et al., 2019). For example, they use information such as employment and income status to determine their effect on healthcare service utilization and prevalence of health problems such as HIV, obesity, substance abuse, and hypertension.

Role of Community Health Nurse

The community health nurse plays crucial roles in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The roles of the nurse in primary prevention include case finding, screening, provision of health education, reporting, data collection, analysis, and following up cases. The roles in secondary prevention includes the initiation of timely treatment for the affected populations, providing psychological support, and linking them to resources. They also follow up them to determine their response to treatment. Their roles in tertiary prevention largely focuses on providing rehabilitation services to the affected and providing care that promotes peaceful death. The community health nurse can integrate the Christian worldview when working with a population affected by HIV (Rouleau et al., 2019). This can be achieved through ensuring the protection of their rights to accessing high-quality care and empowering them to utilize the available community resources.

National Agency or Organization

UNAIDS is an example of an organization that addresses HIV and contributes to reducing its impact on the population. The organization unites the efforts of governments, non-governmental organizations, and private sector to ensure the implementation of interventions that address the needs of HIV patients. The organization also advocates the protection of the rights of HIV populations and their significant others. Lastly, it empowers agents of change in different countries to ensure collectivism in addressing HIV and the promotion of sustainable improvements in combating the disease (unaids.org, n.d.).

Global Implications of the Disease

HIV has considerable impacts to global nations. For example, more than 36 million people currently live with HIV globally. The annual infection rates with HIV are estimated to be 2 million annually. Of the infected populations, only 75% of them receive the required treatment for viral suppression (HIV.gov, n.d.). The implication is that a significant proportion of HIV patients die prematurely because of poor access to the care that they need. Countries suffer from lost productivity, increased care costs, and expenditure in health due to HIV (Pandey & Galvani, 2019). Most countries, including those in Sub-Saharan Africa address HIV by ensuring free access to treatment services. HIV is endemic in low- and middle-income countries as compared to the developed nations (Rashti et al., 2020). For instance, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asian countries contribute to the majority of HIV cases as compared to the western developed nations.

Conclusion

In summary, the selected communicable disease is HIV. The epidemiologic triangle provides a better understanding of HIV. Social determinants of health contribute to HIV spread in communities. Community health nurses play crucial roles in primary, secondary, and tertiary management of HIV. HIV rates are disproportionate in global states.

 

 

References

Cui, Y., Wang, L., McGoogan, J. M., & Pisani, E. (2020). Evolution of HIV/AIDS Epidemics in China. In Z. Wu, Y. Wang, R. Detels, M. Bulterys, & J. M. McGoogan (Eds.), HIV/AIDS in China: Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment (pp. 3–23). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-8518-6_1

Dambach, P., Mahenge, B., Mashasi, I., Muya, A., Barnhart, D. A., Bärnighausen, T. W., Spiegelman, D., & Harling, G. (2020). Socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for HIV transmission in female bar workers in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic literature review. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 697. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08838-8

Duarte, R., Lönnroth, K., Carvalho, C., Lima, F., Carvalho, A. C. C., Muñoz-Torrico, M., & Centis, R. (2018). Tuberculosis, social determinants and co-morbidities (including HIV). Pulmonology, 24(2), 115–119.

Gant, Z., Dailey, A., Hu, X., Wu, B., Jin, C., Yu, C., Johnson, A. S., & Friend, M. (2019). Social determinants of health among adults with diagnosed HIV infection, 2017.

HIV.gov. (n.d.). Global Statistics. HIV.Gov. Retrieved December 16, 2022, from https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/data-and-trends/global-statistics

Khalifa, A., Stover, J., Mahy, M., Idele, P., Porth, T., & Lwamba, C. (2019). Demographic change and HIV epidemic projections to 2050 for adolescents and young people aged 15-24. Global Health Action, 12(1), 1662685. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2019.1662685

Liu, X., Wang, H., Zhu, Z., Zhang, L., Cao, J., Zhang, L., Yang, H., Wen, H., Hu, Y., Chen, C., & Lu, H. (2022). Exploring bridge symptoms in HIV-positive people with comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 22(1), 448. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-022-04088-7

Pandey, A., & Galvani, A. P. (2019). The global burden of HIV and prospects for control. The Lancet HIV, 6(12), e809–e811. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30230-9

Rashti, R., Sharafi, H., Alavian, S. M., Moradi, Y., Mohamadi Bolbanabad, A., & Moradi, G. (2020). Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Global Prevalence of HBsAg and HIV and HCV Antibodies among People Who Inject Drugs and Female Sex Workers. Pathogens, 9(6), Article 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060432

Rouleau, G., Richard, L., Côté, J., Gagnon, M.-P., & Pelletier, J. (2019). Nursing Practice to Support People Living With HIV With Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence: A Qualitative Study. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 30(4), e20–e37. https://doi.org/10.1097/JNC.0000000000000103

unaids.org. (n.d.). HIV care and support. Retrieved December 16, 2022, from https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2016/HIV-care-and-support

Question 1I have carefully reviewed the instructions, templates, and rubrics for each of the four parts of the Direct Care Project.

True

False

Question 2Which of the following areas have you completed for the Direct Care Project Part 1: Assessment and Diagnosis assignment?

Select all that apply.

Selected my topic: Air Quality or Substance Use

Community Description

Demographic Data

Epidemiological Data

Windshield Survey

Problem Identification

Nursing Diagnosis

I have not started my Direct Care Project Part 1 yet.

Question 3I have ideas for an organization (if Air Quality was selected) or healthcare individuals (if Substance Use was selected) that I can present to in Part 3.

True

False

Read also: NR 443 Week 6 Project Evaluating the Project

Question 4 In the text box, ask any questions you have regarding the Direct Care Project Part 1: Assessment and Diagnosis assignment. Your Faculty will respond no later than Friday, 11:59 pm MT via the comment box in the grade.  If you do not have any questions, share your thoughts of this portion of the project (how it is going, is it easy or challenging, etc.)

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: NR 443 RN Community Health Nursing Week 2 Project

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.

Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.

One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.

I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.

In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.

Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).

Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).

Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.

I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.

As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.

It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.

Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.

Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?

Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.

If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.

I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.

As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.

Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.