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NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance

NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance

Chamberlain University NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance– Step-By-Step Guide

 

This guide will demonstrate how to complete the Chamberlain University   NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance  assignment based on general principles of academic writing. Here, we will show you the A, B, Cs of completing an academic paper, irrespective of the instructions. After guiding you through what to do, the guide will leave one or two sample essays at the end to highlight the various sections discussed below.

 

How to Research and Prepare for  NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance                                

 

Whether one passes or fails an academic assignment such as the Chamberlain University   NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance    depends on the preparation done beforehand. The first thing to do once you receive an assignment is to quickly skim through the requirements. Once that is done, start going through the instructions one by one to clearly understand what the instructor wants. The most important thing here is to understand the required format—whether it is APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.

 

After understanding the requirements of the paper, the next phase is to gather relevant materials. The first place to start the research process is the weekly resources. Go through the resources provided in the instructions to determine which ones fit the assignment. After reviewing the provided resources, use the university library to search for additional resources. After gathering sufficient and necessary resources, you are now ready to start drafting your paper.

 

How to Write the Introduction for  NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance                                

 

The introduction for the Chamberlain University   NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance    is where you tell the instructor what your paper will encompass. In three to four statements, highlight the important points that will form the basis of your paper. Here, you can include statistics to show the importance of the topic you will be discussing. At the end of the introduction, write a clear purpose statement outlining what exactly will be contained in the paper. This statement will start with “The purpose of this paper…” and then proceed to outline the various sections of the instructions.

 

How to Write the Body for  NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance                                

 

After the introduction, move into the main part of the  NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance       assignment, which is the body. Given that the paper you will be writing is not experimental, the way you organize the headings and subheadings of your paper is critically important. In some cases, you might have to use more subheadings to properly organize the assignment. The organization will depend on the rubric provided. Carefully examine the rubric, as it will contain all the detailed requirements of the assignment. Sometimes, the rubric will have information that the normal instructions lack.

 

Another important factor to consider at this point is how to do citations. In-text citations are fundamental as they support the arguments and points you make in the paper. At this point, the resources gathered at the beginning will come in handy. Integrating the ideas of the authors with your own will ensure that you produce a comprehensive paper. Also, follow the given citation format. In most cases, APA 7 is the preferred format for nursing assignments.

 

How to Write the Conclusion for  NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance                                

 

After completing the main sections, write the conclusion of your paper. The conclusion is a summary of the main points you made in your paper. However, you need to rewrite the points and not simply copy and paste them. By restating the points from each subheading, you will provide a nuanced overview of the assignment to the reader.

 

How to Format the References List for  NR 505 Week 6: Statistical and Clinical Significance                                

 

The very last part of your paper involves listing the sources used in your paper. These sources should be listed in alphabetical order and double-spaced. Additionally, use a hanging indent for each source that appears in this list. Lastly, only the sources cited within the body of the paper should appear here.

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Statistical and clinical significance of research are both very important within the medical community and both are only productive when they bring change or influence on the patient population. According to El-Masri (2016) a statistically significant result shows the observed effect is not likely due to chance. For example, the values assigned to rule out the null hypothesis are based on pre-determined criteria. Statistical significance allows the researcher to make determinations based on the study findings and data as to the true value this research will have on the patient population. Clinical significance measures the magnitude of the relationship between the independent variable and the outcome variable (El-Masri, 2016). Clinical significance is measured by the value it brings to quality of life, patient outcomes, and cost. Healthcare professionals must be careful to ensure the results of the study are credible and they can be transferred to positively impact a patient population.

In my opinion, I believe you can accept the null hypothesis and still demonstrate clinical significance. My understanding of clinical significance is the impact it brings to the patient population from the research data available wheth

er the results show productive change or harmful change. “Was the treatment plan effective?” and “Does it have significance within the clinical practice?” are questions that help determine clinical significance. For example, a hypothetical research study on a group of clinically depressed patients utilizing cognitive behavior therapy as the independent variable showed no statistically significant difference between the control group and the independent group than the null hypothesis is accepted. However, the clinical results of the data showed many participants responded well to cognitive behavior therapy and verbalized improved mood, outlook, and quality of life. The researcher could look at confidence intervals to determine if cognitive behavior therapy had clinical significance on the depressed patient population and could produce change within the clinical setting such as improved quality care outcomes, patient satisfaction, or a reduction in hospital stays. Clinical significance refers to the real-life impact of research findings (El-Masri, 2016).

According to Connelly (2014) the clinical significance of a study must be determined by the clinician because they know the needs of their patient population and the practice setting in which they operate. In my opinion, if I questioned the credibility of the qualitative study I could still potentially find clinical significance in my practice area. For example, a hypothetical stud

y on veterans’ suicide risk post deployment with in-depth interviews on a sample size of approximately 20 veterans to discuss their experience with re-integration into society and the effects on their mental health needs. The credibility of the data could be in question simply because the saturation of the data did not occur. However, as a clinician working in a rural setting with a large veteran population, I see how certain questions regarding post deployment and mental health needs could improve the quality of life and possibly reduce the suicide risk within my patient population then I have discovered clinical significance while questioning the credibility of the study.

Connelly, L.M. (2014). Statistical and clinical significance. Medsurg Nursing: Official Journal of the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses, 23(2), 118-9.

El-Masri, M. M. (2016). Statistical versus clinical significance in nursing research. The Canadian Journal of Nursing Research = Revue Canadienne De Recherche en Sciences Infirmieres48(2), 31-32. doi:10.1177/084456211667

NR 505 Week 6 Statistical and Clinical Significance

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The question I chose this week discusses how my research on veterans could be transferred to a different population group. I found this question fascinating and I feel I have two distinct population groups that could fall into a similar situation as veterans returning from combat and reintegrating back into a civilian lifestyle. The first group would be police officers who are accustomed to putting their life on the line every day in the line of duty. I can see where police officers see many fellow officers wounded or killed because of protecting others. Meffert et.al (2014) discussed the similarities between a combat veteran and a police officer and the level of stress endured and the high rate of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of their career choice. Police officers are often the first line of defense and first responder in a life-threatening situation, emergency scenario, or domestic abuse where women and children are being assaulted.

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The qualitative research on post war veterans could easily relate to police officers as they try to have normal lives and when they are off duty. The common thread with these two disciplines is the PTSD from work related violence that permeates their existence on and off duty. Meffert (2014) discusses how PTSD can impact work and personal relationships and effect overall mental health and the individual’s ability to relate to others. The second group I feel could relate to the qualitative study would be victims of domestic violence. In this population group there is a combat zone within the home setting thus increasing the risks for victims to experience PTSD. Victims of domestic abuse can have a difficult time relating to other individuals within the community and can feel isolated and alone and live in a constant posture of defense and fear for their personal safety. This posture of defense can impact mental well-being and a sense of belonginess similar to that of the post war veteran. All three situations could benefit from qualitative research on reintegration into community following life outside of their previous combat zone.

 

Meffert, S. M., Henn-Haase, C., Metzler, T. J., Qian, M., Best, S., Hirschfeld, A., & Marmar, C. R. (2014). Prospective study of police officer spouse/partners: a new pathway to secondary trauma and relationship violence. Plos One9(7), e100663. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100663

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This weeks discussion is regarding statistical and clinical significance.  We are asked to review these two ideas and differentiate between the two.  Statistics has never been my strong point but it is important to know especially when reviewing and understanding research.  I found a great piece of literature that was printed by American Nurse Today explaining the importance of both ideas.  Both concepts are related but it is vital to know their differences and how they can be applied to practice.  A statistically significant difference
means an association or difference exists between the variables that wasn’t caused solely by normal variation or chance. A clinically significant difference means the researchers found a statistically significant
difference that experts in the field believe is substantial enough to be clinically important and thus should direct the course of patient care.  Statistical significance must always be established before clinical significance can be determined.  Clinical significance is a subjective judgment that can’t be determined by a
single test. (Heavy, 2015. p.1-2.).  If the results from a qualitative study is regarded as questionable, I believe it may still be clinically significant.  Qualitative design deals with perceptions and opinions and may not be applicable to one’s area of care but can still be applied to another situation.  A study may not be transferable to one situation but can still be transferable to another.  A hypothetical example could be one where the environment could influence a participants perception of the issue.  A qualitative study regarding the quality of care for mental health patients in an indoor ER safe room with no windows or sunlight may be different than an institution with outdoor privileges and comfortable surroundings.  If a persons environment is on the same level as the participants in the study, the results may have clinical significance, if it is drastically different for better or worse, it may not be significant.  I had trouble knowing how to answer the middle question above but I think the answer is yes.  It could be possible for a study to support the null hypothesis and demonstrate clinical significance.  An example could be that a study supports the idea that certain patients are not at higher risk for falls and that could direct caretakers to not have to implement extra safety measures as they would higher fall risk patients.  I look forward to reading everyone’s reply’s to further my understanding of this weeks lesson.

thank you

 

References

Heavey, E. (2015). Differentiating statistical significance and clinical significance. American Nurse Today10(5), 26-28.

 

Statistical significance is the process for which the results of a research study is accurate, true, and valid, it is unlikely to be the results of randomness; numerical meaningfulness (Venes, 2013).  An important reason for not equating statistical significance with clinical importance is that statistical significance is strongly affected by sample size (Venes, 2013).   In a study with a large sample size, statistical power is high and is at less risk for errors (Venes, 2013).  The use of various statistical methods can be used to analyze the outcome of a study to determine whether the results are valuable to the outcome or not (Venes, 2013).   With the increase emphasis on evidence-based practice, it is important for nurses and other healthcare providers to base their practice on evidence that is real and clinically important (Polit, 2017).  For almost all types of research studies, a percentage must be created to know if the results are meaningful, it is a great chance that a result can be concluded without error.  To do this, clinical significance must be concluded.   Clinical significance is described as the degree of improvement experienced by the patient, it is a subjective interpretation of a research result as meaningful for the patient and thus, is likely to affect the provider’s behavior (Polit, 2017).

It is not possible to have research study results that support the acceptance of the null hypothesis and demonstrate clinical significance.  Statistical procedures are designed to support null hypothesis, they are not equipped for the testing of actual research hypothesis that includes the absence of relationships or about the equivalence between groups (Polit, 2017).  In a clinical situation, the goal is to test whether one intervention or practice is as effective as another (Polit, 2017).    A hypothetical example is:  The number of co-morbid diagnoses in patients in rural areas correlates with yearly physical exams.  The interpretation of this means that the number of co-morbid diagnoses results from the lack of yearly physical exams.  This is a possibility that the results resulted from chance.

If the credibility of the results from a qualitative study was questioned, it would not have clinical significance to my practice as a nurse.  This is in part due to the lack of generalization found in qualitative studies.  Qualiative studies do not provide relationships that can be taken from a single sample and applied to an entire population.  Qualitative studies lead to quantitative studies, where generalization can be performed within a larger group leading to less error and clinical significance.  A hypothetical example includes: If yearly physical exams are performed by a patient, then their risk for chronic illnesses will be lowered.  The qualitative hypothesis lacks quantification and has to be used in a quantitative study to conclude with meaningful results.

I must admit, I have found that understanding the concepts of statistical significance, clinical significance along with null hypothesis and its relation to quantitative and qualitative research has been rather difficult. However, I do understand its importance in the field of research and how it relates to evidence-based practices.   Hopefully, I have researched enough to adequately complete this assignment.  I hope to learn more as we advance in this course, and future courses.

 

Reference

Polit, D.F (2017).  Clinical significance in nursing Research:  A discussion and descriptive analysis.  International Journal of Nursing Studies.  73, 17-23.  https://doiLinks to an external site.. org/10.1016/j.inurstu.2017.05.002

Venes, D. (2013).  Statistical significance.  Taber’s Cyclopedia Medical Dictionary 22nd Ed.  Retrieved from: eds.-b-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org