NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper

NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper

NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper: Epidemiology Paper Requirements

  1. Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.
  2. Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.
  3. Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected.Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?
  4. Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.
  5. Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
  6. Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.

NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper: Epidemiology Paper

There is a significant impact that communicable diseases, such as tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and influenza, have on the population of the entire world. The rate of transmission and the severity of communicable diseases are both significantly influenced by factors such as globalization. For instance, the status of human interactions is always shifting, which can have an impact on the way infectious diseases are disseminated across the world. The primary responsibility of reducing the incidence and severity of communicable diseases in their respective populations falls on the shoulders of nurses and other healthcare professionals. They utilize primary, secondary, and tertiary health promotion methods in order to empower those who are affected and those who are at risk to make changes to their lifestyles and behaviors. In addition to this, they choose interventions that are examples of best practices and improve care outcomes in terms of factors such as safety, quality, and efficiency. As a result, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS is the topic that will be investigated in this paper.

NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper: Description of the Communicable Disease

In NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper, HIV/AIDS is the main infection/illness that will make the major part of this discussion. The viral infection known as HIV/AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. It makes the immunological system of the body its main target. In the absence of therapy, it is possible for the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome to progress (AIDS). Those who have HIV or AIDS encounter a wide range of symptoms throughout the stage of the illness known as the symptomatic phase. There are a range of symptoms associated with HIV/AIDS, and they can differ depending on the stage of infection. Early symptoms may include fever, rash, fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes, and sore throat (Dumais, 2017). As the infection progresses, people may develop more severe symptoms such as fevers that don’t respond to medication, significant weight loss, recurring infections, and problems with the nervous system. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, and can lead to debilitating illnesses and death. Patients often include fast weight loss, pneumonia, skin rashes, and neurological conditions including depression and memory loss.

HIV is most commonly spread through sexual contact and the exchange of physiological fluids containing the virus, such as semen, vaginal fluid, or blood. It can also be spread through contact with infected mucous membranes, such as the inside of the mouth or rectum. HIV can be spread from mother to child during pregnancy, labor and delivery, or breastfeeding as as shown in NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper. It can also be spread through needle sharing among intravenous drug users. And finally, it can be acquired through a blood transfusion or organ transplant if the donor is infected with HIV. While bringing the pregnancy to term and again after the baby is born, the mother may directly transmit the virus to the growing fetus. A history of STDs, injecting drugs, a large number of sexual partners, and participating in sexual activity without using protection are all risk factors for HIV and AIDS. There are many issues that are related to HIV/AIDS. This group of illnesses includes pneumocystis pneumonia, cryptococcal meningitis, CMV, toxoplasmosis, candidiasis, and tuberculosis. Along with frailty, liver disease, renal disease, diabetes, and malignancies unrelated to AIDS, patients are also more likely to have these conditions (Capriotti, 2018; Dumais, 2017). Currently, there is no HIV/AIDS therapy or cure. On the other hand, antiretroviral drugs are used to treat patients and they lower the level of virus that is present in the body. Treatments for symptoms of illnesses including oral candidiasis, meningitis, and pneumonia are also used to stop further immune suppression.

The data that are now available show that HIV/AIDS is a problem for both national and international health. Statistics show that in 2019, there were 34 800 newly discovered cases of HIV/AIDS. It was an 8% drop from the incidence rate of the prior year. The age group with the greatest infection rate was 45 to 54 years old, followed by 35 to 44 year olds as the second highest age group. In the US, there are 1.2 million persons living with HIV/AIDS, of whom 13% are uninformed of their infection status. The demographics most affected by HIV/AIDS in the United States include those from underrepresented groups, such as homosexual men, bisexual men, and other males who have sex with other men (HIV.GOV, 2021). A sickness like HIV/AIDS must be disclosed. Healthcare institutions report cases of HIV/AIDS that have been clinically identified to the National HIV Surveillance System, which is maintained by the CDC, as well as to the health departments of the individual states. The instances are reported once the patients have been diagnosed.

Social Determinants of Health

The term “social determinants of health” refers to the factors that can be changed but still contribute to health disparities. Social determinants of health are things that are present in the environments in which people are born, where they live, where they work, and where they thrive. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is linked to a number of factors that determine health. Ethnicity is one of these factors (Hogan et al., 2021). The number of people living with HIV/AIDS is significantly higher in certain ethnic groups, including African Americans. A person’s socioeconomic status, as well as their level of poverty, is yet another social factor that influences their health. As a consequence of this, the prevalence of HIV and AIDS is high among people who come from families with low socioeconomic status. They are more likely to contract sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV/AIDS, due to certain risky behaviors, such as engaging in risky sexual activities.

Employment position is an additional social component that influences health in the case of HIV and AIDS. The work position of a person affects both their socioeconomic situation and their ability to get inexpensive health care. People who are unemployed are more prone than those who are working to participate in dangerous activities like drug use and prostitution, which increases their risk of contracting HIV. The HIV infection rate is often greater among the jobless as a result of this. The degree of education a person has is another crucial social factor of health when discussing HIV/AIDS. There have been reports of increased HIV/AIDS infection rates in communities where the average level of education is low (Friedman et al., 2018). The population’s degree of education has an impact on a variety of factors, including the population’s awareness, employment, and socioeconomic position. Another issue that adds to inequality among those with HIV/AIDS is access to care. Due to a lack of health insurance and inability to pay for treatment, it is expected that a large number of HIV/AIDS diagnoses will be recorded among communities with restricted access to healthcare. Delays in early diagnosis and treatment start are among the variables that contribute to poor outcomes in HIV/AIDS care. The population’s degree of awareness on how to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS has been proven to be impacted by low access to healthcare services (Santos et al., 2018). Because of this, it is crucial to implement interventions that focus on the socioeconomic variables leading to the spread of HIV/AIDS in order to enhance population health.

Epidemiological Triangle

An epidemiological triangle is a technique that helps researchers better understand how infectious diseases spread among people. It clarifies the intricate connections between infectious disease pathogens, their hosts, and the settings they live in. The agent is the name for the microbe that is the cause of the illness. In the context of HIV/AIDS, a virus is the infectious agent that causes the illness. The most prevalent kind of the virus that may lead to HIV/AIDS is called HIV-1 (Gopalappa et al., 2017). HIV-2 is a rare virus with modest virulence with signs and symptoms similar to HIV-1. A variety of HIV-related variables have an impact on the virus’s capacity to infect a host. They include virulence, often referred to as pathogenicity, and dosage. A disease-causing microorganism’s pathogenicity refers to its ability to really cause illness. The HIV virus has a high degree of virulence since it may infect and spread throughout the host. A dosage is a measurement of a pathogen’s amount or concentration (a microbe that causes sickness) (Gopalappa et al., 2017). The majority of the time, HIV is present in high concentrations, which increases its ability to infect and spread throughout the host. HIV is spread from one person to another by direct contact between hosts and infectious fluids, such as blood, vaginal secretions, or sperm.

In the epidemiological triangle, the term “host” refers to the person who is carrying the disease. It is a reference to the people whose lives have been altered by HIV/AIDS. Their susceptibility to HIV infection and the subsequent progression of AIDS is influenced by a number of host factors. The state of one’s immune system is one of them. People with weakened immune systems have an increased likelihood of becoming infected with HIV. There is a high likelihood of viral invasion, further multiplication, and subsequent suppression. The individual behaviors of the hosts are another factor related to the hosts. The risk of the host being exposed to the agent is increased by behaviors such as having sexual contact without protection, having a large number of sexual partners, and injecting drugs while sharing needles, among other things (Mahdavi et al., 2021). Another host-related risk factor for HIV and AIDS is the possibility of becoming pregnant. Infected pregnant women have an increased risk of passing the virus on to their unborn children either through mother-to-child transmission, which can occur during delivery and breastfeeding, or through mother-to-baby transmission. People who already have a medical condition are at a greater risk of contracting HIV/AIDS than those who do not have a medical condition. Comorbidities that are already present in patients lower their immune status, which in turn increases their susceptibility to the agent. Patients receiving standard treatments for cancer are at an increased risk of contracting HIV due to the suppression of their immune systems caused by these treatments (Joas et al., 2018). Patients who are receiving blood transfusions and those who have been involved in car accidents are also at risk because of their contact with contaminated fluids.

The word “environment” describes the different external factors that affect the epidemiologic epidemic. Environmental elements, in addition to the host and the infectious agent, contribute to the spread of the illness. The environmental variables that contribute to the transmission of HIV/AIDS include places with a high frequency of sexually transmitted infections and poor levels of reporting (Dumais, 2017). Situations like this promote the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Socioeconomic variables, such as poverty, also contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS since they make it harder to get the essential therapy. Another thing that deters people from enrolling in testing and treatment programs is when people with HIV/AIDS experience stigma or social isolation (Dumais, 2017). They are to blame for the increased pace of the disease’s population-wide spread as a direct consequence of this.

Role of the Community Health Nurse

Community health nurses have a number of roles in the epidemiological treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. One of the responsibilities involved is case discovery. The search for cases entails looking for those who have had HIV/AIDS as well as those who are at risk. The community health nurse conducts population screens in order to find the patients. She also outlines the susceptible groups, which might include those who are transgender, misuse alcohol or drugs, have several sex partners, or participate in unprotected sexual activity, such as those who work in the sex industry (Mottiar& Lodge, 2018). The nurse educates the vulnerable population on HIV/AIDS prevention strategies as well as the need of being screened and starting treatment for cases as soon as they are found.

A case that has been detected must also be reported to the proper authorities by the community health nurse. To correctly estimate the prevalence, incidence, and severity of HIV/AIDS in a specific community, data must be gathered and reported. The information is useful in figuring out how to best provide the people with resources linked to HIV/AIDS. The nurse is also in charge of gathering information on HIV/AIDS in the general community (Knettel et al., 2021). The information provided by the data provided insights on the severity, prevalence, and trends of the illness in the community. In order to provide a true picture of the illness pattern, distribution, and burden throughout the community, the nurse will do an analysis on the data that was gathered. The nurse will also share the studied data with the general public, healthcare professionals, and public health authorities in an effort to motivate individuals to take action. Presenting results to communities, publishing findings in journals, presenting findings at conferences, and creating new policies based on study findings are all examples of effective dissemination tactics. Additionally, the community health nurse is in charge of case follow-up. Follow-up is conducted to make sure infected individuals continue to take their medications as directed and to look for any additional needs that could affect the outcome of treatment (Knettel et al., 2021). As a consequence, community health nurses must play a crucial role in the epidemiological treatment of HIV/AIDS.


National Agency

A national organization called UNAIDS fights HIV/AIDS both in the US and in other countries across the globe. UNAIDS is a worldwide program that was started to spearhead efforts to eliminate HIV/AIDS by the year 2030 within the framework of the global Sustainable Development Goals. The organization takes special pride in its capacity to encourage leadership in the battle against HIV/AIDS at all levels—regional, global, national, and local (UNAIDS,2021). The organization acts as a global issue solution by integrating communities affected by HIV/AIDS in the decision-making process. Additionally, it carries out and keeps track of response activities in the war against HIV/AIDS. The group collaborates with other countries and communities to develop strategies that are successful in ending HIV/AIDS. It also campaigns for the adoption of policies to eliminate the political and legal barriers that prevent effective HIV/AIDS response.

UNAIDS can help patients with HIV and AIDS in a variety of ways. First, it encourages individuals who are afflicted by the illness and those who are at risk of developing it to have access to treatment and preventative services (UNAIDS,2021). Increasing patient access to antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS would be an excellent illustration of this. In the battle against HIV, UNAIDS also defends the rights of the patients. It ensures that their needs will be given top consideration in the formulation and application of policy. Additionally, it supports initiatives aimed at enhancing the quality of life for HIV patients, including as social and gender-based rights protections and educational initiatives.

ALSO READ: NRS 428 Benchmark – Policy Brief

Global Implication

Globally, the expansion of HIV/AIDS has a detrimental impact. According to estimates, there are over 38 million persons living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. It contributes to the spread of illness since the vast majority of persons affected globally lack access to treatment or preventative programs. A reduction in quality of life is experienced by HIV/AIDS patients and those who are important to them. Patients with opportunistic infections must stay in the hospital for extended periods of time, which may be difficult for both the patient and their loved one (Navon, 2018). As a direct consequence of having to visit the hospital often and being admitted, the productivity of the patients and their families is negatively impacted.

Due to HIV/AIDS, the world’s nations are also suffering severe financial consequences. For instance, the US spent more than $34.8 billion on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment initiatives in 2019. (KFF, 2021). Dieleman et al. (2018) report that from 1995 to 2015, the annualized rate of healthcare expenditure per person related to HIV/AIDS grew. From 1995 to 2015, there was a rise in this. Both upper-middle income countries and low-middle income countries saw the greatest rates of growth. As a result of the rise, $9.1 trillion was spent on healthcare globally to combat and cure HIV/AIDS.

Another cause of death that contributes significantly to global mortality is HIV/AIDS. For instance, a study released by UNAIDS estimates that since the start of the epidemic, 47.8 million individuals have died as a consequence of HIV/AIDS-related infections. Additionally, 680000 people died in 2020 as a result of HIV-related diseases. n.d. (UNAIDS). UNICEF (2021) estimates that 330 children would die from diseases associated with HIV/AIDS per day in the globe in 2020. A number of causes contributed to the majority of child fatalities, with inadequate access to HIV treatment and prevention being the most important. Several nations have put different initiatives into place to fight HIV/AIDS. One of the methods that has been put into practice in the majority of nations is expanding access to treatment by making antiretroviral medications free to use. Having access to therapy increases the overall quality of life and longevity of those who are afflicted (Chenneville et al., 2020; Mandsager et al., 2018). Furthermore, there are no fees involved with being tested for HIV/AIDS. Both free HIV testing and health education programs are available to the general population. In order to alleviate dietary inadequacies, the population also gets help in the form of nutritional aid.


The HIV/AIDS pandemic has a considerable impact on worldwide disease burden. The presence of the host, the infectious agent, and environmental elements that contribute to its worldwide spread are revealed via analysis employing epidemiological methodologies. In the battle against HIV/AIDS, the community health nurse is in charge of a number of tasks. You will be in charge of locating cases, gathering information, running analysis, sharing it, and keeping in touch with patients in this position. Numerous problems that are linked to HIV/AIDS add to the increased urgency with which confirmed individuals must be treated. To reduce the possibility of the illness spreading among such communities and its harmful impacts, vulnerable people should be given priority when making choices concerning public policy. Organizations like UNAIDS play crucial supportive roles in the battle against HIV/AIDS. National governments and international organizations should collaborate to implement policies that will reduce the incidence and prevalence of the illness in order to enhance public health and stop the spread of HIV/AIDS.




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Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza viruses. It is commonly referred to as flu. It is a cause of pandemics and epidemics, although it is not so contagious as the common cold. There are many influenza viruses, each causing its disease; some are very similar but different. The symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, and coryza. Influenza can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages. The condition, which is particularly quick and vigorous, has been observed to catch people during the fall and winter frequently. Reports indicate that millions of cases are reported worldwide during an epidemic season each year. Therefore, there is a need to prevent the disease. Vaccination is the most appropriate strategy to handle this health challenge. It helps to prevent the spread of the disease during its reach. Hence, according to the local healthcare department’s recommendation, people should seek vaccination yearly. This paper aims to describe influenza in terms of specific demographics, how various determinants of health contribute to its development, and the epidemiology triangle. Similarly, it will focus on the community health nurse’s role, the importance of demographic data, the national organization that works to address the disease, and the global implication.

Comprehensive Description of a Communicable Disease and the Demographic of Interest

Influenza is caused by influenza viruses infecting the upper respiratory tract. The viruses are classified as influenza A and B (Darricarrère et al., 2021). Each type causes distinct disease patterns, but both are capable of causing severe illness and death in young children, older adults, and people with other underlying health conditions who lack immunity to the virus (Kim & Chang, 2018). Influenza A viruses are further divided into subtypes based on the genetic makeup of their hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) protein subunits (Kim & Chang, 2018). Hemagglutinins comprises H1 and H3 on the surface of the virus. These proteins help the virus bind to sialic acid molecules on host cells, thus allowing the virus to attach to them and enter through the cell membrane. Once inside a cell, the virus replicates and infects another cell by attaching itself to sialic acids on this new host cell. The H1 protein is responsible for causing symptoms such as fever, chills, coughing, sneezing, and sore throat (Kim & Chang, 2018).

The H3 protein does not have these symptoms; however, it helps spread infection from one person to another through coughing or sneezing. Influenza B viruses are further divided into subtypes based on the genetic makeup of their PB1 and PA protein subunits (Kim & Chang, 2018). Influenza is a highly contagious disease that spreads quickly from person to person, household to household, school to school, and workplace to workplace. In general, influenza is spread through direct contact with respiratory secretions such as coughing, sneezing, or droplets expelled from a sick person (Boktor et al., 2021). It can also be transmitted from objects and surfaces contaminated with infected respiratory secretions, such as doorknobs and phones. Also, it occurs through touching things like toys and books that have come into contact with infected surfaces. Most people recover from influenza within a week. However, some people develop complications such as pneumonia or even death if they contract influenza while they have underlying health problems such as asthma or diabetes. Preventing flu is more accessible than treating it once it spreads (Kim & Chang, 2018). Vaccination can prevent infection with many types of flu virus; nevertheless, not all flu vaccines work equally well for everyone (Mameli et al., 2019). Also, vaccination should be done early in the season when the highest risk exists for developing severe illness from flu virus infection.

Influenza is a reportable disease for the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS). It is when one can be tested for influenza and reported to the local or state health department or hospital as appropriate (Morabia, 2020). A person who has had an influenza-like illness and presents to the health care provider with a fever, cough, or other respiratory symptoms should report within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms. If the patient cannot contact a health care provider or hospital within 24 hours, it is necessary to call a local or state health department or hospital at once and ask them to accept the report (Morabia, 2020). Also, the patients should contact their public information office to confirm if they would accept reports from a specific area code phone number.

Determinants of Health and Explanation of How Determinants Contribute to Disease Development

The social conditions in which one is born lives, and ages significantly impact the spread of influenza. These social determinants are responsible for how the disease affects the body and the people’s health experiences (Seligman etal., 2021). These factors include access to health care services, public safety, and the availability of resources that satisfy everyday needs, such as safe housing and food (Social Determinants of Health, 2018). Besides, they include the availability of resources and the patient’s capacity to access medical care, and many other circumstances might improve one’s health, including but not limited to employment, education, and social support.

Like many other diseases, social factors in health influence the frequency of influenza-related mortality and the harm that impacts economic growth. Researchers have discovered a connection between the improvement of social elements and the prevention of influenza outbreaks. For instance, if the economy were to improve, more people would have access to vaccinations, which would help reduce disease prevalence (Fell et al., 2017). Additionally, it would be beneficial in providing researchers with more adequate resources to undertake studies to comprehend the nature of the disease and stop its spread. Therefore, strengthening the economy is essential to easing the burden of this illness on the population. Lack of educational possibilities may also affect how the disease is handled because it is more likely to cause adverse conditions if people are unaware of how to take it (Fell et al., 2017). Given that the infected persons might not be aware of the associated symptoms and the use of preventive actions, it could be fatal because it would spread exceptionally quickly.

Epidemiologic Triangle (Host Factors, Agent Factors, and Environmental Factors

According to Fell et al. (2017), the four components of the epidemiological triangle are time, host, environment, and agent. The numerous influenza virus strains related to the illness are linked to the illness’s epidemiological triangle and attack the upper respiratory system. Fell et al. (2017) reveal that influenza viruses use animals as carriers and have a quick mutation rate. This aspect demands that new vaccines be continuously produced each year. The most susceptible individuals to this illness are those with immunological deficiencies (Tanner et al., 2021). Because there are not enough environmental health determinists, health professionals are also at risk of contracting the disease. The sickness’ causal agent, moisture from infected individuals, is responsible for its transmission. According to Fell et al. (2017), influenza has an incubation and a symptomatic period between 5 and 7 days. After this period, there is the likelihood that the disease will stop being infectious to the host. However, the host may experience the symptoms for up to 14 days.

Role of the Community Health Nurse and Importance of Demographic Data

Community health nurses should contribute to researching influenza. They are responsible for collecting and reporting influenza statistics to CDC, just like many other communicable illnesses (Grohskopf et al., 2018). This information is essential for the CDC to accurately assess the sickness and develop workable tactics to stop its spread. Community health nurses also help the general public’s awareness of the illness. They can develop public relations strategies, campaigns, and studios to increase awareness. Through a greater understanding of the illness and its risks, these initiatives may seek to reduce the spread of the disease (Grohskopf et al., 2018). In addition, community health nurses can be at the forefront of promoting and advertising the program in society during immunization campaigns to ensure it reaches the public.

Similarly, nurses are responsible for providing patients with medical care to encourage healthy lives and stop the spread of disease. In addition to providing medical care to the ill, they can provide educational programs with advice on how to stop the spread of the illness by choosing healthy lives (Grohskopf et al., 2018). Community health nurses can assist the health departments in setting up screening procedures and immunization cases of influenza outbreaks. Also, they can offer the general public personal protective equipment to keep them from catching the disease.

National Agency or Organization That Works to Addresses Communicable Disease

Over the years, World Health Organization (WHO) has been at the forefront of addressing the effects of influenza. According to Ly et al. (2017), WHO was established on 22nd July 1946 as a United Nations office focusing on solving global influenza and other medical issues. It has successfully reduced the flu through practical measures, a significant contributing component. The group focuses on changing some of the mechanisms that regulate all pandemics caused by the disease. Because of its dedication to improving public health and wellbeing, the organization has conducted extensive research on preventing sporadic influenza outbreaks and spreading the virus from animal to human. One instance was the 2009 H1N1 influenza A test conducted in Mexico. The introduction of a Pandemic Influenza Control (PIP) structure in the same year led to significant advancements in treating the condition. The system was intended to increase availability and significantly respond to the influenza epidemic. WHO works with its administrative bodies to create organizations for delivering impact populace training programs. The organization released the Global Influenza Strategy 2019–2030 on 11th March 2009 to protect the entire world’s population from influenza (Ly et al., 2017). According to Ly et al. (2017), the organization suggested using flu antibodies throughout the Northern Hemisphere’s 2019–2020 flu season. In addition, it has the Global Influenza Program, which aims to provide strategic direction, activity coordination, and technical support based on the threat from all types of influenza.

Global Implication

Influenza is a leading cause of global mortality and morbidity rates today. According to Ly et al. (2017), besides death, the disease has significant effects that cause major burdens towards the limited resources in the world. Therefore, the global implications of influenza are far-ranging and impact many industries. The economic costs of the pandemic have been staggering, with estimates placing them at $11.2 billion in the United States alone (Putri et al., 2018). These costs can be attributed to lost productivity, increased medical care expenses, travel disruptions, and even death. Similarly, in the last few decades, influenza viruses have evolved to overcome many antiviral drugs used to treat them. It has led to an exploding number of cases, with about 5-10% of adults and 20-30% of children worldwide becoming ill (Ly et al., 2017). These statistics contribute to between 3 and 5 million cases of influenza and nearly 1 million fatal cases worldwide (Ly et al., 2017). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 200 different types of influenza A virus are circulating globally at any time. Vaccines or antiviral drugs do not recognize the majority of these types. Each year, the WHO publishes recommendations for countries on preparing for and responding to pandemic influenza outbreaks. These recommendations include using vaccines and antiviral drugs as their countries’ healthcare systems require. On the other hand, the influenza B virus is an endemic species to specific regions and does not spread globally. According to Ly et al. (2017), influenza B cases are reported in India and China.

Other diseases in several African nations exhibit symptoms similar to those of influenza. Due to the disease’s limited surveillance, they become confused (Ly et al., 2017). High poverty levels and weak health systems are present in various African nations, especially in the Sub-Saharan region. Similarly, the countries face significant obstacles brought on by illnesses like HIV and malaria, which change the focus of financial issues (Ly et al., 2017). The world must work together to address these issues and raise the region’s health standards. For instance, the CDC has significantly contributed to reducing malaria in Kenya through various programs.


Influenza is a contagious disease that spreads through contact with respiratory secretions, doorknobs, phones, and toys that have come into contact with infected surfaces. Vaccination can prevent infection with many flu viruses, but not all vaccines work equally well. A person with influenza-like symptoms should contact a health care provider or hospital within 24 hours. They can also get their public information office to confirm if they would accept reports from a specific area code phone number. The social conditions in which one is born lives, and ages significantly impact the spread of influenza. These social determinants include access to health care services, public safety, and the availability of resources that satisfy everyday needs, such as safe housing and food. The four components of the epidemiological triangle are time, host, environment, and agent. Influenza viruses use animals as carriers and have a quick mutation rate, and the most susceptible individuals are those with immunological deficiencies. Community health nurses are responsible for collecting and reporting influenza statistics to the CDC, helping to develop public relations strategies to increase awareness of the illness, and providing medical care to patients to encourage healthy lives and stop the spread of disease. The World Health Organization is a United Nations agency that works to address infectious diseases. It has successfully reduced the flu through practical measures and created organizations to deliver impact training programs. Influenza is a leading cause of global mortality and morbidity rates today. It has significant effects that cause major burdens towards the limited resources in the world and has cost the United States $11.2 billion. The WHO estimates that more than 200 different types of influenza A virus are circulating globally at any time. It recommends that countries use vaccines and antiviral drugs as their healthcare systems require. African nations face significant obstacles due to illnesses like HIV and malaria, which change the focus of financial issues. The world must work together to address these issues.



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