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NURS 6053 Assignment Personal Leadership Philosophies

NURS 6053 Assignment Personal Leadership Philosophies

NURS 6053 Assignment Personal Leadership Philosophies

There are many leadership styles considered to be effective for leaders. These include the Authentic Leadership Model, Transformational Leadership, Democratic Leadership, Leadership Challenge Model, etc. No matter what model a leader follows, it must be authentic and have certain qualities to be an effective leader. These include effective communication and relationship-building, knowledge of the healthcare environment, leadership, professionalism, business skills, reliability, compassion, believability, and transparency (Broome & Marshall, 2021). There are many nurses who have leadership attributes and lead without a title. They are considered nurse leaders as well and can be found at all levels of the healthcare system (James Cook University, 2021).

Barriers caused by organizational culture that can be encountered by nursing leaders that can make them feel powerless can be multiple factors. The culture that is found in organizations includes the values, customs, norms, beliefs and mores that dictate this how people behave within that culture. This cultures influences how people behave within that organization, for better or worse. Nurse leaders within a corporate model can feel powerless by a lack of communication from upper management, keeping employees uninformed, administration distancing themselves from employees, conflict among staff and lack of trust can leave nurse leaders feeling quite powerless within an organization. Some other barriers include: a lack of involvement, the negative image of nursing, a lack of enabling structures, a process which exclude nurses, and a lack of available resources (Shariff 2014). Nurse leaders may also come across barriers due to financial reasons and bureaucracy from upper management if the nurse leader is wanting to implement changes in their department or an area of management.

Another important consideration in effective leadership in today’s multigenerational workforce is how different generations respond to different leadership styles. For instance, Baby boomers are hard workers, and they enjoy achievement and feel accomplished at work. They are confident, independent, disciplined, and generally optimistic. Generation X prefers independence and does not respond well to controlling leadership styles. They want to work in collaboration with their leader. Generation Y are team-oriented and wants to feel respected by their boss to make decisions. They do not have the same hierarchical attitudes as other generations and do not like structure. They want to “connect” with their boss on a more personal level. Generation Z are financially focused, are entrepreneurial, and speak their mind, expecting change and transformation in their lives and at work. This generation prefers a coaching style (James Cook University, 2021).

Different personalities and different situations affect the work environment dynamically. The key to managing different generations is to alter leadership styles when necessary. We know that leader’s behaviors and leadership qualities have a significant impact on an organization’s overall success (Yang & Wei, 2018). We also know that the organization’s culture has a significant effect on leadership and the health of the workplace and ultimately the organization’s overall success. The trick is finding the balance.

References

James Cook University. (2021). Leadership styles in nursing. Retrieved from https://online.jcu.edu.au/blog/leadership-styles-nursing

Marshall, E. S., & Broome, M. (2021). In Transformational leadership in nursing from expert clinician to influential leader. essay, Springer Publishing Company.

Yang, qi, & Wei, hua. (2018). The impact of ethical leadership on Organizational

Citizenship   Behavior: The moderating role of workplace ostracism.

Leadership & Organization Development Journal. Retrieved September

19, 2022 https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/LODJ-12-

2016-0313/full/html

Effective leadership styles and skills demonstrated by nurses and nurse leaders develop a powerful influence on how health care provider’s work. Studies show that organizations with effective leadership styles have better relationships, reduced staff turnover, limited conflicts and enhanced staff involvement in work and better use of resources. As leaders, nurses must possess core values based on their personal leadership philosophy that mirrors what they believe are characteristics of effective leadership. Leadership philosophies provide guidance in situations where nurses have to make difficult decisions (Asamani et al., 2016). The personal leadership philosophies in this article will address my core values, mission statement and the findings from the Clifton Strengths Assessment. The article will present a plan on enhancing my behaviors and achieve personal vision.

NURS 6053 Assignment Personal Leadership PhilosophiesPersonal Philosophy & Description of Core Values

Personal leadership philosophy guides the leader’s conduct and their reactions to others and immediate situations. Imperatively, my leadership philosophy is utilizing positive core values in developing expectations for those I serve while modeling transformational leadership behavior which leads to the attainment of a set vision and corresponds to the overall attainment of common purpose and goals.
A leader’s core values are internal characteristics based on ethical principles that guide leadership conduct. According to Speranza and Pierce (2019), core values are tied to the moral guidance of an individual which regulates and directs the decisions that one makes. Individuals with robust internal moral values have an increased tendency of making decisions that mirrors their internalized ethical values or perspective and cannot bend them to match others if they do not match. My core values are the moral principles that are expected of an effective leader, and they include authenticity and responsibility, open-mindedness and transparency, integrity and respect, developing trusting relationships, and dependability.
Leaders need to demonstrate genuine trust in their actions to be authentic and be responsible by showing that they are dependable, fulfill their promises, and possess a sense of loyalty. Integrity implies that a leader is truthful and consistent based on their honest conduct. Effective leader-subordinate relationship requires a leader to show respect to others and dependability means that one is reliable. Based on these core values, leaders should build trusting relationship, possess high levels of integrity, and model dependability to be authentic. Authentic leadership allows one to attain influence over subordinates and in their workplace (Speranza & Pierce, 2019). Each leader should endeavor to develop influence which relies on their characteristics or core values. Emotional intelligence that enables a leader to show empathy, compassion, and feelings for others, moves a leader to increased interest in others and have influence in their organization.
Leaders should show high interest in others by listening to them in an open-minded way and accept criticism to develop corrective actions to improve on their leadership style. Lastly, the leaders should have restorative capability, especially in healthcare management (Asamani et al., 2016). Restorative talents ensure that a leader does not surrender when issues arise, but instead uses evidence-based practice (EBP) interventions and intuition to create innovative solutions to address the challenges. Health care leaders who deploy restorative talents create plans that support restorative care that include offering holistic care for patient to attain highest levels of functionality and autonomy.

Vision & Mission Statement

Developing mission and vision statements in nursing needs effective reflection on the intrinsic purpose in life. My mission and vision statement as a nurse leader is to model leadership by example and enhance the emotional intelligence of others around me, especially subordinates in the workplace. I believe that inspiring and motivating others to develop and attain their potential allows leaders to succeed. Nurse leaders can demonstrate empathy to their subordinates who translate the same to patients in care delivery. Through these aspects, nurses and other providers create and maintain health work environment and achieve excellent care outcomes while meeting organizational and team members’ needs. Imperatively, deployment of proper skills in leadership and proficiency management of scarce resources in health promotion and holistic care is critical and an essential part of my overall mission in nursing.

Analysis of Clifton Strengths Assessment Results

Laureate Education (2018) asserts that when an individual discovers, their strengths and weaknesses, they can develop effective plan to be better leaders. According to the Clifton Strengths Assessment outcomes in five areas, my strengths include possessing two strategic thinking abilities and three execution talents. The essential thinking aspects include learning ability and analytical skills. Individuals with these abilities attain joy in their outcome and have a resilient desire to increase their knowledge and fast to learn. They can also organize and maintain teams and groups at advanced levels. Being analytical allows one to be inquisitive as one tends to understand the main cause of things and develop solution based on evidence (Fick et al., 2018). Nurses need analytical skills to effectively deploy evidence-based practice interventions.
The execution talents based on the results include achiever, restorative and responsibility abilities. Achievers are enthusiastic individuals and focus on attaining maximum productive results. Individuals with corrective abilities attempt to restore things using inquisitive approach to understand the fault and address the challenges. Responsibility implies that one is dependable, fulfills their promises and possess a sense of loyalty and can be trusted in all areas of life, especially in nurse-patient therapeutic relationships.

Two Behaviors to Improve or Strengthen

While the results illustrate effective abilities and strengths, I believe that I can improve on two key aspects. These include achiever and being analytical. Attaining the client’s goals, especially through patient-centered care approach, and organizational goals are essential attributes in healthcare for nurse leaders. I would appreciate getting additional skills and knowledge to set new goals and remain resilient when faced with challenges in making critical decisions. The second area to develop is my analytical approach to attainment of goals. analytical approach allows leaders to be critical executors of their decisions and actions. Health care administrator and leaders should have analytical thinking to make objective, rational and impartial examination and assessment of issues that improves a leader to understand the underlying cause and impact and develop effective solutions based on evidence.
I would also like to improve on dependability and restorative talents as they are key to effective healthcare delivery and better outcomes. Leaders should be reliable while also modeling effective care for their subordinates in different situations. The two characteristics to improve based on the results include empathy and resiliency (Cummings et al., 2018). Empathy implies showing emotional feelings to subordinates and patients while resiliency is being strong and facing situations without any fear of failing. These are essential for nurse leaders who seek to develop effective teams and attain optimal outcomes in health care environment.

Personal Vision Improvement Plan

I intend to maintain constant self-assessments, get feedback from colleagues, patients and managers. I believe that positive and constructive criticism are essential in weak areas for one to make positive changes and improve their approaches. Therefore, practicing effective communication and active listening and develop robust and therapeutic relationships and interactions with stakeholders are essential in attaining improvement in the achievers and analytical aspects. I also intend to allow colleagues to exercise more autonomy in practice and adopt new strategies to make the work environment healthy. These are essential in improving my vision and seeking more knowledge on different leadership model.
Transformational leadership model remains the gold standard in nursing and healthcare environment (Marshall & Broome, 2017). However, effective transformational leadership needs essential skills because situational aspects may require change in leadership approach. For instance, transformational leaders may need transactional skills to manage daily operations and organizational priorities. Therefore, I will strive to develop a situational approach to leadership issues in all areas of practice.

Conclusion

A leadership philosophy is a critical component in attaining leadership goals and success in care practice. Through regular self-assessment, one can discover their potentials that require improvement. Again, transformational leadership and having skills in other leadership models is essential due to situations that may require contingency approaches. Leaders should lead by example, feel the emotions of their team members, and meet their needs as ways of encouraging and motivating their teams in performing and attaining excellent patient outcomes.

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NURS 6053 Assignment Personal Leadership Philosophies
NURS 6053 Assignment Personal Leadership Philosophies

References

Asamani, J. A, Naab, F., & Ofei, A. M. A. (2016). Leadership styles in nursing management:
Implications for staff outcomes. Journal of Health Sciences, 6(1), 23-26. doi:10.17532/jhsci.2016.266
Cummings, G., Tate, K., Lee, S., Wong, C., Paananen, T., Micaroni, S., & Chatterjee, G. (2018).
Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 85,19-60. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.04.016
Fick, J. W, Dishman, L., Adler, K. & William, L. (2018). Exploring hospital CEOs’ perspective
of health administration graduates’ leadership competencies. Journal of Health Administration Education, 35(2), 229-267. Retrieved from https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/aupha/jhae/2018/00000035/00000002/art00009#
Laureate Education (Producer). (2018). The Leader in You [Video]. Available from
https://class.waldenu.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/USW1/202050_27/MS_NURS/NURS_6053_WC/USW1_NURS_6053_module03.html?course_uid=USW1.40773.202050&service_url=https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/bbgs-deep-links-
Marshall, E., & Broome, M. (2017). Transformational leadership in nursing: From expert
clinician to influential leader (2nd ed.). Becoming a leader It’s all about you (pp. 172-1991). New York, NY: Springer.
Speranza, C. R., & Pierce, A. (2019). Development of a personal leadership philosophy: An
experiential and reflective opportunity in the graduate classroom. Journal of Leadership Education, 18(3), 167–174. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.12806/V18/I3/A2

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Assignment: Personal Leadership Philosophies

Many of us can think of leaders we have come to admire, be they historical figures, pillars of the industry we work in, or leaders we know personally. The leadership of individuals such as Abraham Lincoln and Margaret Thatcher has been studied and discussed repeatedly. However, you may have interacted with leaders you feel demonstrated equally competent leadership without ever having a book written about their approaches.
What makes great leaders great? Every leader is different, of course, but one area of commonality is the leadership philosophy that great leaders develop and practice. A leadership philosophy is basically an attitude held by leaders that acts as a guiding principle for their behavior. While formal theories on leadership continue to evolve over time, great leaders seem to adhere to an overarching philosophy that steers their actions.
What is your leadership philosophy? In this Assignment, you will explore what guides your own leadership.

To Prepare:

• Identify two to three scholarly resources, in addition to this Module’s readings, that evaluate the impact of leadership behaviors in creating healthy work environments.
• Reflect on the leadership behaviors presented in the three resources that you selected for review.
• Reflect on your results of the CliftonStrengths Assessment, and consider how the results relate to your leadership traits.
• Download your Signature Theme Report to submit for this Assignment.
The Assignment (2-3 pages):

Personal Leadership Philosophies

Develop and submit a personal leadership philosophy that reflects what you think are characteristics of a good leader. Use the scholarly resources on leadership you selected to support your philosophy statement. Your personal leadership philosophy should include the following:
• A description of your core values.
• A personal mission/vision statement.
• An analysis of your CliftonStrengths Assessment summarizing the results of your profile
• A description of two key behaviors that you wish to strengthen.
• A development plan that explains how you plan to improve upon the two key behaviors you selected and an explanation of how you plan to achieve your personal vision. Be specific and provide examples.
• Be sure to incorporate your colleagues’ feedback on your CliftonStrengths Assessment from this Module’s Discussion 2.
• Note: Be sure to attach your Signature Theme Report to your Assignment submission.

By Day 7 of Week 6

Submit your personal leadership philosophy.
Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
• Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
• Click the Week 6 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
• Click the Week 6 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
• Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
• If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
• Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
• Due to the nature of this assignment, your instructor may require more than 7 days to provide you with quality feedback

The core values of a leader are what determine the personal leadership philosophy of a leader. I believe that good leaders tend to have a set of unique characteristics that drive the way they act, their decision-making process, and the level of influence that they have on their followers (Laureate Education 2014). Therefore, my personal leadership philosophy is driven by a set of values that determine my underlying beliefs and guide my decision-making process and the actions that ultimately shape my daily routine and my career goals (Cortellazzo et al., 2019). Notably, one of the values that drives my personal leadership philosophy is the elements of empowerment and development.

I view leadership as a position of power. For this reason, as opposed to keeping the power and control to myself, I strive to ensure that I empower others and motivate them to amplify their own impact as well. Some of the strategies that I use to ensure empowerment include actions such as formal training of employees through mentorship and delegation of responsibilities. Another key value in my personal leadership philosophy is the element of communication. I believe that communication is a powerful tool of a leader and is the foundation for a relationship. In the work setting, centering communication enables communication of contexts to the team and fellow employees (Khan et al., 2020). It aids in ensuring that clear and concise expectations are set for the employees. In addition, it forms the basis for the provision and setting of constructive feedback both within and outside the work setting.

The mission and vision are the core elements of my leadership values. My personal leadership mission statement defines my purpose and objectives as a leader. It aids in illustrating my role and existence to my followers and to the organization. Similarly, my mission statement defines my purpose as a leader. The vision statement focus on my personal goals and aspirations as a leader (Roupnel et al., 2019). The vision and the mission statements are meant to ensure that my leadership approach remains uplifting and inspiring. My personal vision and mission statement are:

Vision: To continue working towards becoming the leader that I would wish to work for. I have to lead by being an example and integrating open communication while investing in my employees and followers. I will aid the organization in attaining its goals.

Mission: To serve as a leader by encouraging the development of innovative ideas and forward-thinking to ensure that my team can bring about technology solutions that will enhance and improve other people’s lives.

Based on the CliftonStrengths assessment, I tend to employ the qualities of restorative theme due to my ability to develop solutions to problems that arise. I strive to ensure that I refer to information sources and consult materials such as publications in order to overcome the challenges that I encounter both in the work setting and in my personal life. I am constantly in search of ways that would best make me a better person and a better leader. For this reason, I would wish that other people learn from me about the need to investigate a situation at hand. This means that it is in the best interest to learn from the failures and challenges experienced. Also, I tend to be a learner, given that I strive to acquire additional knowledge and skills from the daily experiences and interactions within and out of the work setting. I tend to persevere to the point where I acquire the skills and knowledge needed to attain a goal. I tend to look into the future and the best way to have the best outcome through present actions and decisions on the futuristic theme. The theme of connectedness manifests in the element of generosity that I show to people. I believe that this is the strategy that will aid in motivating and influencing other people to perform good deeds. Lastly, as a relator, I seek to form positive relationships with those that I interact with to get the best out of the interaction.

Two key behaviors that I intend to strengthen include the qualities of supportive and participative leadership. The two behaviors will best aid in ensuring that I lead by example and that I am able to provide the right guidance to my employees. The strategies that I plan to use to improve on these behaviors are through online tutorials and enrolling in classes that will aid in improving the two aspects. I will enroll in evening classes and attend training sessions in the health facility that I work for to improve on the two aspects of leadership. Upon completion of the classes for three months, I will have a certificate and will be able to exercise the two qualities with ease. Online training will be based on a wide variety of sources and the contributions from accomplished leaders in the health sector (Khan et al., 2020). Being participative as a leader is motivating to the other employees and improves the level of performance in the health organization.

References

Cortellazzo, L., Bruni, E., & Zampieri, R. (2019). The Role of Leadership in a Digitalized World: A Review. Frontiers In Psychology10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01938

Khan, H., Rehmat, M., Butt, T., Farooqi, S., & Asim, J. (2020). Impact of transformational leadership on work performance, burnout and social loafing: a mediation model. Future Business Journal6(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43093-020-00043-8

Roupnel, S., Rinfret, N., & Grenier, J. (2019). Leadership development: three programs that maximize learning over time. Journal Of Leadership Education18(2). https://doi.org/10.12806/v18/i2/t1

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014). Leadership [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Thanks for your response and question. I want to be a great leader in nursing, to inspire others and for my patients to trust and believe in the care that I provide for them. A good nurse leader can influence and motivate others around them (Alsadaan et al., 2023). There are two behaviors that I can improve on to be a good nurse leader: communication and critical thinking. As I pursue my advanced practice nursing license these two behaviors will be very important. I will need to be able to critically think about the care and treatment provided to my patients, making sure all the checks and balances are covered. I will need to communicate with my patients clearly and effectively about their illness, treatment regimen and discharge plans.

Behavior refers to human conduct, that is a series of personal choices, and can be changed at any time. A characteristic is a specific feature that makes up an individual and cannot be changed. A core value is a belief or principle that is of central importance in a person’s life or work, a core value can drive a person’s belief system. Based on an individual’s core value system they my display certain behaviors. An individual will hold to their core value system and cannot be swayed in any way to think differently about something. Core values are what matters most to an individual and help with making decisions throughout life based on beliefs.

 

Alsadaan, N., Salameh, B., Reshia, F. A. A. E., Alruwaili, R. F., Alruwaili, M., Awad Ali, S. A., Alruwaili, A. N., Hefnawy, G. R., Alshammari, M. S. S., Alrumayh, A. G. R., Alruwaili, A. O., & Jones, L. K. (2023). Impact of Nurse Leaders Behaviors on Nursing Staff Performance: A Systematic Review of Literature. Inquiry : A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing, 60. https://doi.org/10.1177/00469580231178528

Excellent Good Fair Poor
Develop and submit a personal leadership philosophy that reflects what you think are characteristics of a good leader. Use the scholarly resources on leadership you selected to support your philosophy statement. Your personal leadership philosophy should include the following:

·   A description of your core values.
·   A personal mission/vision statement.

14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

The response accurately and thoroughly describes in detail a set of core values.

The response accurately and completely describes in detail a personal mission/vision statement.

12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

The response describes a set of core values.

The response describes a personal mission/vision statement.

11 (11%) – 11 (11%)

The response describes a set of core values that is vague or inaccurate.

The response describes a personal mission/vision statement that is vague or inaccurate.

(0%) – 10 (10%)

The response describes a set of core values that is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

The response describes a personal mission/vision statement that is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

·   Analysis of your CliftonStrengths Assessment summarizing the results of your profile.
·   A description of two key behaviors you wish to strengthen.
14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

The response accurately and completely provides an analysis and detailed summary of the CliftonStrengths Assessment.

The response accurately and thoroughly describes in detail two key behaviors to strengthen.

12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

The response accurately provides an analysis and summary of the CliftonStrengths Assessment.

The response describes two key behaviors to strengthen.

11 (11%) – 11 (11%)

The response provides an analysis and summary of the CliftonStrengths Assessment that is vague or inaccurate.

The response describes two key behaviors to strengthen that is vague or inaccurate.

(0%) – 10 (10%)

The response provides an analysis and summary of the CliftonStrengths Assessment that is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

The response describes two key behaviors to strengthen that is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

·   A development plan that explains how you plan to improve upon the two key behaviors you selected and an explanation of how you plan to achieve your personal vision. Be specific and provide examples.
50 (50%) – 55 (55%)

An accurate, complete, and detailed development plan is provided that thoroughly explains plans to improve upon the two key behaviors selected.

The responses accurately and thoroughly explain in detail plans on how to achieve a personal vision with specific and accurate examples.

The response includes a comprehensive synthesis of information gleaned from sources that fully support how to achieve a personal vision. Integrates 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 2 or 3 course-specific resources to fully support the responses provided.

44 (44%) – 49 (49%)

An accurate development plan is provided that explains plans to improve upon the two key behaviors selected.

The responses explain plans on how to achieve a personal vision and may include some specific examples.

The response includes a synthesis of information gleaned from sources that may support how to achieve a personal vision. Integrates 1 credible outside source, in addition to 2 or 3 course-specific resources which may support the responses provided.

39 (39%) – 43 (43%)

A development plan is provided that explains plans to improve upon the two key behaviors selected that is vague or inaccurate.

The responses explain plans on how to achieve a personal vision and may include some examples that are vague or inaccurate.

The response includes information gleaned from 2 or 3 sources that may support how to achieve a personal vision.

(0%) – 38 (38%)

A development plan is provided that explains plans to improve upon the two key behaviors selected that is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

The responses explain plans on how to achieve a personal vision that is vague and inaccurate, does not include any examples, or is missing.

The response does not include any additional information gleaned from outside sources, or is missing.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:

Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused—neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction is provided which delineates all required criteria.

(5%) – 5 (5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion is provided which delineates all required criteria.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is stated, yet is brief and not descriptive.

3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is vague or off topic.

(0%) – 3 (3%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time.

No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion was provided.

Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:

Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation

(5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.
(4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
(0%) – 3 (3%)
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
(5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors.
(4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.
3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.
(0%) – 3 (3%)
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.
Total Points: 100