NURS 6201 Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Week 10 Module 4 Assignment Transformational Leadership Analysis
NURS 6201 Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Week 10 Module 4 Assignment Transformational Leadership Analysis
Week 10 Module 4 Assignment
Transformational Leadership Analysis
Northouse (2016) explains that transformational leadership “is concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and long-term goals.” It is a leadership skill that has the unique ability to motivate people to “accomplish more than what is expected of them.” How might transformational leadership be applicable in your leadership role?
For this Assignment, you examine transformational leadership within your own workplace environment. As a member of the nursing leadership team, you can help create a healthy workplace culture that promotes excellence in nursing.
Photo Credit: Getty Images
Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.
Think about the characteristics of transformational leadership.
Review the Sherman and Pross (2010) resource related to workplace culture.
Select a scenario from your current or past workplace in which a leader demonstrated transformational leadership.
Assignment (4–5 pages, not including the title page or reference page):
Describe the scenario you selected.
Describe the transformational behaviors or actions the leader exhibited. Be specific and provide examples.
Explain how these behaviors or actions produce the best care and environment for excellence in nursing practice and a healthy workplace environment that leads to quality patient outcomes.
For each behavior or action, provide an example of how excellence in nursing practice is taking place.
Explain how the leader’s behaviors and actions contribute to a healthy workplace culture.
Explain the relationship among transformational leadership, communication, and collaboration with other teams and how this promotes excellence in nursing practice.
Use the Resources and other literature to support your explanations.
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
Submit your Assignment.
Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
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Click the Module 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Module 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “MD04Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
NURS6201 Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare
Week 3 Quiz
Question 1 Systems thinking could be defined as:
Question 2 Which of the following is true of continuum-centered care?
Question 3 Lapses in care transitions contribute to which of the following?
Question 4 Which of the following best describes Transforming Care at the Bedside (TCAB)?
Question 5 Which of the following strategies support nurse leaders’ efforts in systems thinking and decision making?
Question 6 Which of the following is true of the Quadruple Aim in healthcare?
Question 7 Which of the following is true of complex adaptive systems?
Question 8 Which of the following is a key health literacy consideration during transitions of care?
Question 9 Patient activation in the context of transitions of care refers to which of the following?
Question 10 Which of the following is a dimension of the IHI Triple Aim?
Leadership is never learned, developed, enacted, or evaluated outside the dynamic environment in which one actually works and leads. Although the context in which one leads can be constructed, that is rarely the situation in which most contemporary leaders must function. Instead most of us inherit an environment that we are expected to grow, improve, and enhance in effectiveness and work culture. Therefore, as a transformational leader, you must acquire an ability to understand and function effectively within the realities of the context and environment in which you work. Stichler (2006, p. 155) reminded:
Today’s [leader] is more challenged than ever to manage multiple, competing priorities in organizations with ever-diminishing financial and human resources. Accountability for ensuring positive patient outcomes, productivity goals, financial targets, retention quotas, customer and provider satisfaction goals, and other performance metrics demand that the contemporary [leader] possess and demonstrate well-developed leadership skills and organizational management competencies … [and] excel in developing a culture and work environment that fosters professional models of care [emphasis added], evidence-based practice, interdisciplinary and collaborative practice, professional autonomy and, quality nursing leadership.
Contemporary health care systems that survive and even thrive in today’s market continue to evolve and change. Individuals in leadership positions are expected to help others assume new roles and models for doing their work, maintain high levels of employee satisfaction, and motivate others to “do their best”—even when it is not always clear what “best” would look like (Romley, Goldman, & Sood, 2015). The new jargon is all too familiar: complexity, cost-effectiveness, change, value, satisfaction, and populations. But what do these mean for the next generation of leaders?
These concepts all refer to context. In the past, the context of care was simple. It referred to settings, like hospital, clinic, or home—all with fairly simple linear and hierarchical models for care of the sick. Now the boundaries among these settings have blurred, and it is the transitions of what happens to patients (and providers) between and among such settings for which leaders are responsible. Now, and for the foreseeable future, context is everything. Context is the circumstance of your work as a leader. It refers to the multifaceted climate, background, domain, and terrain of care delivery. It is more than just the setting or environment, although it includes those. It comprises all systemic, physical, social, emotional, professional, informal, and formal aspects of care. The context for leadership has become as challenging as any aspect of leadership itself.
Beyond physical, social, or professional context, the context of our very thinking is challenged. The easy things have been done. All problems are more complex. Our old ways of thinking will not bring us to solutions. We must have the courage to think in new ways.
COMPLEXITY IN HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS
Nearly every discussion of current issues and contexts in health care begins with mention of the complexity of the problems we face and solutions we must implement. Complexity has become the introduction, the theoretical explanation, and the metaphor for the current and future state of health care. Consequently, chaos theory and complex adaptive systems are discussed in so many situations that they have become the catch phrases of the industry, with little general agreement on definitions and even less precision of application. Paley (2007, p. 234) chastised writers in health care literature for misuse and error in what he called “the over-hasty adoption of complexity ideas” as “essentially just one more intellectual fad.” It is true that it has become fashionable to make “expansive claims” and “grand gestures” (Paley, 2007, pp. 233, 240) regarding chaos, complexity, and health care. Nevertheless, the references to complex states and issues continue to prevail, and it is difficult to argue that chaos and complexity have no real influence. Thus, it is helpful for any leader to have a basic awareness of such approaches to thinking about and practicing in a new world of health care. Space is not adequate in this book to provide the quick-and-easy comprehensive discourse on chaos and complexity theory often desired by the emerging leader. The concepts cross a wide range of disciplines in their meanings and applications. Many of the ideas have been applied to areas as divergent as biology and art. Further, application of such theories to the daily practice of a leader can be daunting. Nevertheless, the complexity of the very concepts and theories of complexity should not intimidate you as a leader. These are topics that should be studied from a range of authors and perspectives. It is precisely because they are often discussed in areas far distant from health care that such theories provide an excellent opportunity for learning and practice for innovation in thinking and leading.
Chaos, Quanta, and Complexity Theory
Chaos theory arose in the 1960s in the fields of biology and physics. Meteorologist Edward Lorenz discovered that chaotic systems in weather forecasting appeared to be random, but actually eventually emerged as patterns. In other words, underlying natural phenomena that appear disordered, confused, or chaotic are actually processes of emerging order.
Quantum theory comes from the discipline of physics as a set of principles that describe reality at the most fundamental level of the atom. The word quantum refers to a discrete unit (or “amount,” which is the actual meaning) assigned to certain physical quantities, “such as the energy of an atom at rest” or discrete “energy packets” of wave (“Quantum Mechanics,” 2016). In its most simplified sense, the idea of quantum refers to a kind of fluidity of the particles of reality such that the state or velocity of the particles, or fundamental units, cannot be determined with certainty (Capra, 1982, 1997). Thus, the movement and relationships among the units are more significant than the individual nature of any particular particle. So quantum theory provides a metaphor for the integrated complex relationships among the numerous and varied elements of health care, as opposed to a focus on either the characteristics of any single element or the hierarchical linear building of individual parts. Quantum theory requires us to let go of traditional notions of building blocks of systems and instead adopt a perspective of ever-changing fluid integration of units as parts of a whole. Such a change of paradigm requires a new courageous leadership.
Complexity science is related to chaos theory and quantum perspectives. Complexity science is applicable in biology, physics, mathematics, economics, sociology, management, and the health care disciplines. It examines the nature and process of multiple interacting components of systems and the subsequent emergence of order and/or change (Lindberg, Nash, & Lindberg, 2008; Wall, 2013). Complexity science applies to living systems, examining the unpredictable, disorderly, nonlinear, and uncontrollable way. Unfortunately, this framework has sometimes led individuals to believe that complex systems and problems were not manageable or predictable (Goldstein, Hazy, & Lichtenstein, 2010). Importantly, leaders must understand that complex systems are in fact integrated and often predictable and support “emergence through novel behavior” (Pesut, 2008c, p. 123).
Complexity science focuses on the interacting elements of systems, seeking to identify principles and processes that explain how order emerges from change within the systems. Change is desirable and a natural way of being. Interacting elements of chaos may appear to be without order but actually occur in patterns, although these are not predictable in traditional ways of thinking. Key principles are diversity, emergence, self-organization, embeddedness, distributed control, the coexistence of order and disorder, nonlinearity, and inability to predict in traditional ways of thinking (Lindberg et al., 2008). Systems often have relationships among entities within them that reflect a high degree of systemic interdependence, which leads to nonlinear dynamics and outcomes (Goldstein et al., 2010).
Theory of Complex Adaptive Systems
The theory of complex adaptive systems, as one aspect of complexity science, adds a dimension that describes the ability of organizations to adapt in an ever-changing environment (Goldstein et al., 2010). This adaptability drives new and creative solutions to problems within the system. Complexity is the result of patterns of interactions that are a result of the ever-changing demands on the system, as well as the attempts of individuals and teams in the system to derive and test partial solutions to problems. When these partial solutions can be harnessed and individuals with different perspectives brought together to examine the problem from all angles, a synergistic effect often occurs that results in a creative approach that is much more likely to address the necessary changes and produce desired outcomes.
Most analysts of the contemporary health care scene mention complexity when referring to the complicated nature of all the structures, settings, and individuals. The term health care system has a variety of meanings itself. It may refer to the entire health care industry, including structures, processes, and personnel; or it may refer to a single hospital, ambulatory center, freestanding emergency department building, several hospitals under one organizational umbrella, or a system within any of those entities. Some may argue that although health care is complicated, it may not be the best example of a complex adaptive system. A complex adaptive system is characterized by flexibility and patterns of emerging change as opposed to predetermined change based on hierarchical or central control.
Any clinician can enumerate a long list of areas in health care that persist in the linear, hierarchical paradigm. They can also point to numerous evolutions in the care delivery model close to the point of service that are clearly adaptations to complex new regulations, compensation structures, or patient demographics that have mandated change in order for the organization to survive. Complexity frameworks offer models to frame the issues in the current realities of health care toward a hopeful transformation to a better future. Indeed, some of the current problems of health care may relate to the challenging transition from traditional thinking to a complexity perspective.
There are several key characteristics of complex systems:
- Emergence happens, or the idea that behaviors, patterns, and order develop as a result of nonlinear patterns of relationships and interactions among the elements or units of the organization.
- Relationships are short range, or interchanged from within a unit or near neighbors in a matrix of networks within the larger whole. The units, or parts, cannot contain, determine, or control the whole. Relationships are nonlinear, seldom cause-and-effect, and contain feedback loops.
- Feedback from those within the system may be damping (negative) or amplifying (positive), and a small stimulus may have a large powerful effect or none at all.
- Boundaries are open; energy and information constantly cross boundaries and create constant change.
- Coevolution is a “process of mutual transformation” for both smaller units and the larger organizational environment (Stroebel et al., 2005).
The “fitness landscape” is how an organization fits within an independent/dependent interaction with other agents, units, or organizations. Table 2.1 contains examples of these characteristics within the health care arena.
TABLE 2.1 Characteristics of Complex Adaptive Systems With Examples in Health Care Systems
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
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Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
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Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
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Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
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I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
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Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
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