NURS 6501 Week 3 Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders
NURS 6501 Week 3 Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders
The circulatory system and the respiratory system are powerful partners in health. While they work closely together in good health, a disease or disorder that manifests in one can have a significant impact on both, hampering the pair’s ability to collaborate.
Cardiovascular and respiratory disease and disorders are among the most common reasons for hospital visits, and among the leading causes of fatality. Heart disease and pneumonias are among the most familiar, but a wide variety of issues can impact physiological functioning of one or both systems.
This week, you examine fundamental concepts of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. You explore common diseases and disorders that impact these systems, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.
Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum is a type of cancer that is initiated inside the cells that are responsible for forming glands that produce mucus. This mucus is produced to aid in the lubrication of the rectum and colon. Patients who are positive for Adenocarcinoma of the colon exhibit signs and symptoms such as a change in bowel movements, loss of weight, presence of blood in the stool and a feeling of being tired all the time. The major cause of this disease is old age, genetic disorders, and lifestyle factors. People who engage in activities such as smoking, alcohol abuse, poor diet, obesity and lack of physical activity are at a higher risk of contracting the disease (Kulke et al.,2015). Moreover, old age and being male has also been proven to be probable risk factors. The 65-year old African American patient may have presented the symptoms provided due to his old age and being male.
Mutations in the pair of genes (POLE and POLD1) have all been associated with the development of Adenocarcinoma of the colon. Most deaths relating to colon cancer have also been linked to the metastatic disease. A metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1(MACC1) gene has been isolated as the one responsible for contributing to the metastatic disease. It has a transcriptional factor that influences how the hepatocyte growth factor is expressed. These two genes are responsible for the proliferation, scattering, and invasion of cancer cells. Moreover, they are responsible for the growth of tumors (Maliha, Krittiya, Aneeqa, Wai & Scott,2017)
Colorectal cancer originates from epithelial cells lining of the rectum present in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs as a result of mutations that occur in the Wnt signaling pathway hence increasing the signaling activity (Lin, Chang, Liou, Su, Tsao, & Huang,2018). These mutations can both be acquired or inherited. Its immunosuppression procedure involves mutation of the APC gene. This gene prevents the accumulation of β-catenin protein. In the absence of the APC, β-catenin can accumulate and move to the nucleus then activate the arrangement of proto-oncogenes. Even though these genes are crucial for stem cell renewal, they can also lead to cancer when expresses inappropriately at high levels.
Kulke MH, Shah MH, Benson AB rd., Bergsland E, Berlin JD, Blaszkowsky LS, et al (2015). Neuroendocrine tumors, version 1. J Natl Compr Canc Netw .2015;13:78-108.
Lin KH, Chang NJ, Liou LR, Su MS, Tsao MJ. &Huang ML. (2018). Metachronous adenocarcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon. Formos J Surg [serial online]; 51:76-80. Available from: http://www.e-fjs.org/text.asp?2018/51/2/76/231140
Maliha K, Krittiya, Aneeqa S, Wai C, & Scott K, (2017). Early-Onset Signet-Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Case Reports in Oncological Medicine. Volume 2017 |Article ID 2832180 | 7 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2832180
- Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the lifespan
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McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.
- Chapter 32: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems; Summary Review
- Chapter 33: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function (stop at Dysrhythmias); Summary Review
- Chapter 35: Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System; Summary Review
- Chapter 36: Alterations of Pulmonary Function (stop at Disorders of the chest wall and pleura); (obstructive pulmonary diseases) (stop at Pulmonary artery hypertension); Summary Review
Module 2 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris
Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 2 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check and Assignment. (4m)
Cardiovascular Respiratory Disorders – Week 3 (16m)
Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children
In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 32, 33, 35, and 36 that relate to cardiorespiratory systems and alteration in cardiorespiratory systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/
Knowledge Check: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders
In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.
Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:
- myocardial infarction
- valvular disorders
- lipid panels
- clotting cascade
- deep vein thrombosis
- heart failure
Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF
Complete the Knowledge Check by Day 7 of Week 3
To complete this Knowledge Check:
Module 2 Knowledge Check
What’s Coming Up in Week 4?
Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images
Next week, you will examine the alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes through case study analysis. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact altered physiology.
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Scenario 1: Myocardial Infarction
CC: “I woke up this morning at 6 a.m. with numbness in my left arm and pain in my chest. It feels tight right here (mid-sternal).” “My dad had a heart attack when he was 56-years-old and I am scared because I am 56-years-old.”
HPI: Patient is a 56-year-old Caucasian male who presents to Express Hospital Emergency Department with a chief complaint of chest pain that radiates down his left arm. He states this started this morning and has been getting worse, pointing to the mid-sternal area, “it feels like an elephant is sitting on my chest and having a hard time breathing”. He rates the pain as 9/10. Nothing has made the pain better or worse. He denies any previous episode of chest pain. Denies nausea, or lightheadedness. Nitroglycerin 0.4 mg tablet sublingual x 1 which decreased pain to 7/10.
Lipid panel reveals Total Cholesterol 424 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein (HDL) 26 mg/dl, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) 166 mg/dl, Triglycerides 702 mg/dl, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) 64 mg/dl
His diagnosis is an acute inferior wall myocardial infarction.
1. How does inflammation contribute to the development of atherosclerosis?
Scenario 4: Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT)
A 81-year-old obese female patient who 48 hours post-op left total hip replacement. The patient has had severe nausea and vomiting and has been unable to go to physical therapy. Her mucus membranes are dry. The patient says the skin on her left leg is too tight. Exam reveals a swollen, tense, and red colored calf. The patient has a duplex ultrasound which reveals the presence of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT).
1. Given the history of the patient explain what contributed to the development of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT)
· Question 5
4 out of 4 points
Scenario 5: COPD
A 66-year-old female with a 50 pack/year history of cigarette smoking had a CT scan and was diagnosed with emphysema. He asks if this means he has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
1. There is a clear relationship between emphysema and COPD, explain the pathophysiology of emphysema and the relationship to COPD.