NURS 8310 Discussion 2: Appraising the Literature ANSWER

NURS 8310 Discussion 2: Appraising the Literature ANSWER

Post a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:

  • Appraise the Oppenheimer (2010) and Elliott et al. (1999) articles, summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of each study.
  • Analyze potential sources of bias in each study, and suggest strategies for minimizing bias.
  • Suggest possible confounding variables that may have influenced the results of each study.

WK 6 DQ 2

Over the years, the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) became well-known for its contributions to cardiovascular epidemiology. We examine the study’s history, past accomplishments, present research agenda, and future research directions in this article.

Many of the key tenets of cardiovascular epidemiology have kept true over time as a result of the original observations from FHS. The initial articles from 4- and 6-year follow-up, published in 1957 and 1959, presented findings such as a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) related to older age and male sex. The FHS was the first to show a graded association between CVD and obesity, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and smoking. Furthermore, the scientists noticed that these disorders may interact synergistically, as smokers’ cholesterol levels were higher than non-smokers’. The FHS’s first findings transformed primary CVD prevention (Romero, & Wolf, 2013).

With the fast expanding prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the early twentieth century, public health and political authorities in the United States recognized that a national commitment to CVD prevention research was required. In 1948, the National Heart Institute was established, later becoming the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Romero, & Wolf, 2013). A prospectively observed healthy cohort was chosen as the

NURS 8310 Discussion 2 Appraising the Literature ANSWER

NURS 8310 Discussion 2 Appraising the Literature ANSWER

ideal sample in which to examine CVD development because CVD covers illnesses with a protracted subclinical course. As a result, the United States Public Health Service launched the country’s first large-scale cardiovascular epidemiology research in 1948.

This cohort study, which began in 1947, has been referred regarded as the “main model of reference” for other cohort studies ever since (Oppenheimer, 2010). This method was really utilized in order to establish a link between cigarette smoking and a higher risk of developing myocardial infarction and other heart-related fatalities it is possible to generate outcomes that can be replicated by other similar studies when researchers use a cohort study design, which helps to improve the validity of study outcomes (Romero, & Wolf, 2013).

As the FHS was being created, it also assisted researchers in making connections between clinical and laboratory data. This strategy enabled researchers to design primary and secondary prevention approaches that assisted in the early detection of illness indicators and risk factors before the disease manifested itself (Oppenheimer, 2010). While it had its advantages, it also had its disadvantages. When the researchers overestimated the number of persons who would refuse to participate in the FHS, they ended up with just 14 percent of the cohort study’s original 5127 participants, which increased the level of bias in the study. As a result of some factors surrounding the Cole War era, the researchers deleted elements that may have caused people distress in order to improve participant involvement.

Such factors may have skewed the results and increased the chances for bias, while also increasing the number of confounding variables in the analysis. Items such as inquiries about mental history, sexual dysfunction, wealth, and social class were deleted from the survey, which makes this even more obvious


Oppenheimer, G. M. (2010). Framingham Heart Study: The first 20 years. Progress in 

Cardiovascular Diseases, 53(1), 55-61.

Romero, J. R., & Wolf, P. A. (2013). Epidemiology of stroke: legacy of the Framingham Heart Study. Global heart8(1), 67-75.

Tsao, C. W., & Vasan, R. S. (2015). The Framingham Heart Study: past, present, and future. International Journal of epidemiology44(6), 1763-1766.

Elliott, A. M., Smith, B. H., Penny, K., Smith, W. C., & Chambers, W. A. (1999). The

epidemiology of chronic pain in the community. The Lancet, 354(9186), 1248–1252.


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The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

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Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

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Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to

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Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource