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NURS 6512 Assessing the Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat

NURS 6512 Assessing the Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat

NURS 6512 Assessing the Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat

 SUBJECTIVE DATA:

 Chief Complaint (CC): “I guess I’m kind of sick. . . I’ve been coughing a lot

History of Present Illness (HPI): The affected person A young boy named Danny Riviera, who is only 8 years old, visits the medical center because he has been coughing for the past few days. According to what he says, the cough is very clear and has a watery quality to it. His cough is worse at night, which prevents him from getting adequate rest. As a consequence of this, he has trouble concentrating in class and often comes home exhausted. It’s painful in his right ear. The decision his mother made to use over-the-counter cough medicine, which only provided temporary relief, was made. Danny claims that he has a cold and that he suffers from a runny nose on a regular basis. Additionally, he inhales his father’s secondhand smoke on a regular basis. Within the past year, he has also been diagnosed with pneumonia. However, he does not have a fever, difficulty breathing, abdominal pain, chest tightness, or chills. He also does not have chest tightness.

Medications: The patient acknowledges that they do take their medications at home. In addition to that, he takes a vitamin every day. In addition to that, he takes a medication for coughing that is purple.

Allergies: NKDA

Past Medical History (PMH): Denies asthma diagnosis. Identifies immunizations as being up to date. Previous symptoms include chronic coughing and pneumonia.

Past Surgical History (PSH): None reported.

Sexual/Reproductive History:

Personal/Social History: Identifies himself as a member of a household that also includes his parents and grandparents. avers having a sense of well-being while at home. Describes a park with a playground in the neighborhood. It is reported that the father smokes in the house.

Immunization History: Immunizations are current.

Significant Family History: He is supported by his biological parents as well as both sets of grandparents.

 Review of Systems:

General: During the course of the interview, the patient appears exhausted and coughs several times. Additionally, he seems to be steady.

HEENT: The mucus membrane is wet, and the discharge from the nose is clear. However, the back of his throat is red and clogged with mucus. His eyes are lifeless, and the conjunctiva around them is a pinkish hue. It seems as though the right tympanic membrane is inflamed and red. The lymph nodes in the patient’s right cervical region appear enlarged, and they have a certain degree of tenderness.

Respiratory: Lacks acute distress, has an increased respiratory rate at the age of 28, clear breath sounds on auscultation, and speaks in complete sentences; bronchoscopy is negative. When you percussed his chest wall, you could hear a resonant tone, and his fremitus was normal and bilaterally consistent.

                Cardiovascular/Peripheral Vascular:

               

                Psychiatric:

                Neurological:

                Lymphatics:

               

OBJECTIVE DATA:

Physical Exam:

Vital signs:

Blood Pressure 120/76
O2 Sat 96%
Pulse 100
Resp. Rate 28
Temperature 37.2 c

 

General: During the course of the interview, the patient appears exhausted and coughs several times. Additionally, he seems to be steady.

HEENT: The head is atraumatic and has a normocephalic shape. The mucus membrane is wet, and the discharge from the nose is clear. However, the back of his throat is red and clogged with mucus. His eyes are lifeless, and the conjunctiva around them is a pinkish hue. It seems as though the right tympanic membrane is inflamed and red. The lymph nodes in the patient’s right cervical region appear enlarged, and they have a certain degree of tenderness.

Respiratory: Lacks acute distress, has an increased respiratory rate at the age of 28, clear breath sounds on auscultation, and speaks in complete sentences; bronchoscopy is negative. When you percussed his chest wall, you could hear a resonant tone, and his fremitus was normal and bilaterally consistent.

Cardiology: In S1 and S2, there were no murmurs, gallops, or rubs.

Lymphatics: When palpated, the lymph nodes in the right cervical region are tender.

Psychiatric: No mental issues noted.

 

Diagnostics/Labs (Include any labs, x-rays, or other diagnostics that are needed to develop the                 differential diagnoses.)

ASSESSMENT:

 Based on the findings of the completed physical examination and the observations that were made, the following possible diagnoses can be made.

  1. Common cold: The patient complains of having a stuffy nose and a sore throat, which are both symptoms of a common cold. This observation was also supported by the findings of a physical examination, which showed that the patient had swollen lymph nodes.
  2. Streptococcus throat infection: The patient’s complaint of a sore throat suggests that they may have strep throat. On the other hand, symptoms like nausea, vomiting, headaches, and fever did not present themselves at any point.

iii. Rhinitis is another condition that could have been causing the patient’s symptoms, as they included stuffy nose, sore throat, and drainage from the nose. In addition to this, the patient has a history of recurrent ear infections throughout their lifetime.

  1. Allergies and asthma: The patient does not have a history of allergic reactions. Nevertheless, it is possible that this condition will occur. This condition may have been the cause of the persistent cough. On the other hand, the patient does not exhibit any symptoms of wheezing, chest pain or tightness, or difficulty breathing.

Most ear, nose, and throat conditions that arise in non-critical care settings are minor in nature. However, subtle symptoms can sometimes escalate into life-threatening conditions that require prompt assessment and treatment.
Nurses conducting assessments of the ears, nose, and throat must be able to identify the small differences between life-threatening conditions and benign ones. For instance, if a patient with a sore throat and a runny nose also has inflamed lymph nodes, the inflammation is probably due to the pathogen causing the sore throat rather than a case of throat cancer. With this knowledge and a sufficient patient health history, a nurse would not need to escalate the assessment to a biopsy or an MRI of the lymph nodes but would probably perform a simple strep test.
In this Case Study Assignment, you consider case studies of abnormal findings from patients in a clinical setting. You determine what history should be collected from the patients, what physical exams and diagnostic tests should be conducted, and formulate a differential diagnosis with several possible conditions.

To Prepare

• By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
• Also, your Case Study Assignment should be in the Episodic/Focused SOAP Note format rather than the traditional narrative style format. Refer to Chapter 2 of the Sullivan text and the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template in the Week 5 Learning Resources for guidance. Remember that all Episodic/Focused SOAP Notes have specific data included in every patient case.
With regard to the case study you were assigned:
• Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider the insights they provide.
• Consider what history would be necessary to collect from the patient.
• Consider what physical exams and diagnostic tests would be appropriate to gather more information about the patient’s condition. How would the results be used to make a diagnosis?
• Identify at least five possible conditions that may be considered in a differential diagnosis for the patient.

The Assignment

Use the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template and create an episodic/focused note about the patient in the case study to which you were assigned using the episodic/focused note template provided in the Week 5 resources. Provide evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for each case. List five different possible conditions for the patient’s differential diagnosis and justify why you selected each.

By Day 6 of Week 5

Submit your Assignment.
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Also Read:

NURS 6512 Assignment 2: Digital Clinical Experience: Focused Exam: Cough

NURS 6512 Assignment 1: Lab Assignment: Assessing the Abdomen

NURS 6512 Assignment 1: Digital Clinical Experience: Assessing the Heart, Lungs, and Peripheral Vascular System

NURS 6512 Discussion Musculoskeletal Pain

NURS 6512 Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessing Neurological Symptoms

NURS 6512 Assignment 3: Digital Clinical Experience: Comprehensive (Head-to-Toe) Physical Assessment

NURS 6512 Comprehensive (Head-to-Toe) Physical

NURS 6512 Assignment Assessing The Genitalia And Rectum

NURS 6512 Assignment Ethical Concerns

NURS 6512 Week 9 Assessment Of Cognition And The Neurologic System

NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

NURS 6512 Assignment 1 Case Study Assignment Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

NURS 6512 Assignment 1: Lab Assignment: Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum

Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessing the Ears, Nose, and Throat

Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

Discussion: NURS 6512 Effective Communication

NURS 6512 Post an explanation of the specific socioeconomic, spiritual, lifestyle, and other cultural factors associated with the patient you were assigned

Assignment: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

NURS 6512 The Ethics Behind Assessment

NURS 6512 Cognition and the Neurologic System

NURS 6512 Assessment of the Musculoskeletal System

NURS 6512 Assignment Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

NURS 6512 Abdomen and Gastrointestinal System

NURS 6512 Functional, Cultural and Diversity Awareness in Health

NURS 6512 Building a Comprehensive Health History

NURS 6512 TJ Pregnant Lesbian Essay

NURS 6512 Health History of Tina Jones

NURS 6512 Discussion Week 1 Main Post

NURS 6512 Assignment 2 Focused Exam

NURS 6512 Practice Assessment Skin, Hair, and Nails Examination

NURS 6512 Digital Clinical Experience

NURS 6512 Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

NURS 6512 Episodic/Focused SOAP Note Template

NURS 6512 Discussion Episodic/Focused SOAP Note

NURS 6512 Discussion Adolescent Patients

NURS 6512 how social determinants of health such as age, gender, ethnicity, and environmental situation impact the health and risk assessment of the patients you serve

NURS 6512 The use of nursing theories is critical to patient care because of the different purposes that they serve

NURS 6512 Effective communication is required needed in any patient-healthcare provider interaction

NURS 6512 Primary care is a critical aspect of patient care

NURS 6512 Cultural beliefs played a key role in patient health

NURS 6512 Research the health-illness continuum and its relevance to patient care

NURS 6512 discuss the relevance of the continuum to patient care

NURS 6512 Cultural and linguistic competence

NURS 6512 it is important to treat all patients with respect and dignity despite any differences in race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, or belief systems

NURS 6512 Assessment tests and tools play an important role in the diagnosis of various diseases conditions in both adults and children

NURS 6512 Allergies

NURS 6512 Health assessment of the skin, hair and nails

NURS 6512 Asthma Diagnosis

NURS 6512 The abdomen and the gastrointestinal system Assignment

NURS 6512 Congestive Heart Failure

NURS 6512 Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain

NURS 6512 Lower Back Pain

NURS 6512 Bilateral Ankle Pain

NURS 6512 Discussion Categories to Differentiate Knee Pain

NURS 6512 Assessing The Neurologic System

NURS 6512 Hypertension

NURS 6512 Comprehensive Physical Assessment

NURS 6512 Assessment of the genitalia and rectum is vital in depicting genitourinary and gastrointestinal abnormalities respectively

NURS 6512 ethical dilemmas Assessment

NURS 6512 History of Present Illness (HPI)

NURS 6512 provision of quality and effective healthcare services to the diverse population

NURS 6512 Discussion comprehensive health history for a patient is important in developing a treatment plan for them

Grading Criteria

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Week 5 Assignment 1

Week 5: Assessment of Head, Neck, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat

Emily, age 15, is brought to your clinic complaining of chills, aches, and a sore throat. Without any testing, consider all of the possible diagnoses. It could be a cold, the flu, bronchitis, or even something more serious, such as meningitis or mononucleosis. Assessing the actual cause will involve much more than simple visual inspection. Some conditions are so subtle that they require the use of special instruments and tests in addition to a trained eye and ear.
This week, you will explore how to assess the head, neck, eyes, ears, nose, and throat. Whether dealing with a detached retina, sinusitis, meningitis, or even cough, advanced practice nurses need to know the proper assessment techniques in order to form accurate diagnoses.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

• Apply assessment skills to diagnose eye, ear, and throat conditions
• Apply concepts, theories, and principles relating to health assessment techniques and diagnoses for the head, neck, eyes, ears, nose, and throat
________________________________________

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

• Chapter 11, “Head and Neck”

This chapter reviews the anatomy and physiology of the head and neck. The authors also describe the procedures for conducting a physical examination of the head and neck.

• Chapter 12, “Eyes”

In this chapter, the authors describe the anatomy and function of the eyes. In addition, the authors explain the steps involved in conducting a physical examination of the eyes.

• Chapter 13, “Ears, Nose, and Throat”

The authors of this chapter detail the proper procedures for conducting a physical exam of the ears, nose, and throat. The chapter also provides pictures and descriptions of common abnormalities in the ears, nose, and throat.
Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2019). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Credit Line: Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition by Dains, J.E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. Copyright 2019 by Mosby. Reprinted by permission of Mosby via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Chapter 15, “Earache”
This chapter covers the main questions that need to be asked about the patient’s condition prior to the physical examination as well as how these questions lead to a focused physical examination.

Chapter 21, “Hoarseness”
This chapter focuses on the most common causes of hoarseness. It provides strategies for evaluating the patient, both through questions and through physical exams.

Chapter 25, “Nasal Symptoms and Sinus Congestion”

In this chapter, the authors highlight the key questions to ask about the patients symptoms, the key parts of the physical examination, and potential laboratory work that might be needed to provide an accurate diagnosis of nasal and sinus conditions.

Chapter 30, “Red Eye”

The focus of this chapter is on how to determine the cause of red eyes in a patient, including key symptoms to consider and possible diagnoses.

Chapter 32, “Sore Throat”

A sore throat is one most common concerns patients describe. This chapter includes questions to ask when taking the patient’s history, things to look for while conducting the physical exam, and possible causes for the sore throat.

Chapter 38, “Vision Loss”
This chapter highlights the causes of vision loss and how the causes of the condition can be diagnosed.

Note: Download the six documents (Student Checklists and Key Points) below, and use them as you practice conducting assessments of the head, neck, eyes, ears, nose, and throat.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Head and neck: Student checklist. In Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Credit Line: Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., & Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Head and neck: Key points. In Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Credit Line: Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Eyes: Student checklist. In Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Credit Line: Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Eyes: Key points. In Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Credit Line: Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Ears, nose, and throat: Student checklist. In Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Credit Line: Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Ears, nose, and throat: Key points. In Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Credit Line: Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Colyar, M. R. (2015). Advanced practice nursing procedures. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.
Credit Line: Advanced practice nursing procedures, 1st Edition by Colyar, M. R. Copyright 2015 by F. A. Davis Company. Reprinted by permission of F. A. Davis Company via the Copyright Clearance Center.

• Chapter 71, “Visual Function Evaluation: Snellen, Illiterate E, Pictorial

This section explains the procedural knowledge needed to perform eyes, ears, nose, and mouth procedures.

Sullivan, D. D. (2019). Guide to clinical documentation (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

• Chapter 2, “The Comprehensive History and Physical Exam” (Previously read in Weeks 1, 3, 4, and 5)

Bedell, H. E., & Stevenson, S. B. (2013). Eye movement testing in clinical examination. Vision Research 90, 32–37. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2013.02.001. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698913000217

Rubin, G. S. (2013). Measuring reading performance. Vision Research, 90, 43–51. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2013.02.015. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698913000436

Harmes, K. M., Blackwood, R. A., Burrows, H. L., Cooke, J. M., Harrison, R. V., & Passamani, P. P. (2013). Otitis media: Diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physicians, 88(7), 435–440.

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NURS 6512 Assessing the Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat
NURS 6512 Assessing the Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat

Otolaryngology Houston. (2014). Imaging of maxillary sinusitis (X-ray, CT, and MRI). Retrieved from http://www.ghorayeb.com/ImagingMaxillarySinusitis.html

This website provides medical images of sinusitis, including X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging).

Document: Episodic/Focused SOAP Note Exemplar (Word document)

Document: Episodic/Focused SOAP Note Template (Word document)

Document: Midterm Exam Review (Word document)

Shadow Health Support and Orientation Resources

Frey, C. [Chris Frey]. (2015, September 4). Student orientation [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rfd_8pTJBkY

Shadow Health. (n.d.). Shadow Health help desk. Retrieved from https://support.shadowhealth.com/hc/en-us

Document: Shadow Health. (2014). Useful tips and tricks (Version 2) (PDF)

Document: DCE (Shadow Health) Documentation Template for Focused Exam: Cough (Word document)
Use this template to complete your Assignment 2 for this week.

Optional Resource

Use the following resources to guide you through your Shadow Health orientation as well as other support resources:
LeBlond, R. F., Brown, D. D., & DeGowin, R. L. (2014). DeGowin’s diagnostic examination (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical.

• Chapter 7, “The Head and Neck” (pp. 178–301)

This chapter describes head and neck examinations that can be made with general clinical resources. Also, the authors detail syndromes of common head and neck conditions.

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Assessment of the Head, Neck, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat – Week 5 (29m)
Online media for Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination
It is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 10, 11, and 12 that relate to the assessment of the head, neck, eyes, ears, nose, and throat. Refer to the Week 4 Learning Resources area for access instructions on https://evolve.elsevier.com/.

University of Iowa Ophthalmology. (2016, December 19). Fluorescein staining of the cornea. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/198695974
Credit Line: University of Iowa Ophthalmology. (n.d.). Fluorescein staining of the cornea [Video file]. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/198695974. The author(s) and publishers acknowledge the University of Iowa and EyeRounds.org for permission to reproduce this copyrighted material.

Note: Approximate length of this media program is 25 seconds.
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Name: NURS_6512_Week_5_Assignment_1_Rubric
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Using the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template:
· Create documentation or an episodic/focused note in SOAP format about the patient in the case study to which you were assigned.

· Provide evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for your case. Points Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)
The response clearly, accurately, and thoroughly follows the SOAP format to document the patient in the assigned case study. The response thoroughly and accurately provides detailed evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for the patient in the assigned case study. Points Range: 39 (39%) – 44 (44%)
The response accurately follows the SOAP format to document the patient in the assigned case study. The response accurately provides detailed evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for the patient in the assigned case study. Points Range: 33 (33%) – 38 (38%)
The response follows the SOAP format to document the patient in the assigned case study, with some vagueness and inaccuracy. The response provides evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for the patient in the assigned case study, with some vagueness or inaccuracy in the evidence selected. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 32 (32%)
The response incompletely and inaccurately follows the SOAP format to document the patient in the assigned case study. The response provides incomplete, inaccurate, and/or missing evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for the patient in the assigned case study.

· List five different possible conditions for the patient’s differential diagnosis, and justify why you selected each. Points Range: 30 (30%) – 35 (35%)
The response lists five distinctly different and detailed possible conditions for a differential diagnosis of the patient in the assigned case study, and provides a thorough, accurate, and detailed justification for each of the five conditions selected. Points Range: 24 (24%) – 29 (29%)
The response lists four or five different possible conditions for a differential diagnosis of the patient in the assigned case study and provides an accurate justification for each of the five conditions selected. Points Range: 18 (18%) – 23 (23%)
The response lists three to five possible conditions for a differential diagnosis of the patient in the assigned case study, with some vagueness and/or inaccuracy in the conditions and/or justification for each. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)
The response lists two or fewer, or is missing, possible conditions for a differential diagnosis of the patient in the assigned case study, with inaccurate or missing justification for each condition selected.
Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive. Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.
Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors. Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.
Total Points: 100

CC: “My eyes are bulging and I feel fatigued.”

HPI:

Kali is a 44-year-old White woman on physical exam with primary symptoms of protruding eyes and fatigue. The symptoms began about four months ago, and the fatigue has worsened. The fatigue has no aggravating factors, but resting alleviated it to some degree. The symptoms have significantly affected her occupational functioning since she always feels tired.

Current Medications: Atorvastatin 40 mg OD for hyperlipidemia.

Allergies: No allergies.

PMHx: Vaccination is current. The last TT was four years ago, and she received a FLU shot 5 months ago. Positive history of dyslipidemia diagnosed 12 months ago. No history of surgery.

Soc Hx: Kali is a corporate secretary working in an insurance firm. She is a Certified Professional Secretary and has a Diploma in Business Administration. She is married and has two children, 20 and 17 years old. Her hobbies include baking and reading magazines. She takes 3-4 beers on weekends but denies smoking or using illicit substances. Her souse and sister are the support system.

Fam Hx: The grandmother had Diabetes, and the grandfather succumbed to Lung cancer. Her elder sister also has Diabetes. The children are well.

ROS:

Vital signs: BP- 132/84; HR-94; RR- 20; Temp- 98.4F

Wt-188 lbs; Ht-5’6; BMI- 30.3

GENERAL:  Reports fatigue and weight gain. Denies fever/chills.

HEENT:  Eyes: Positive for bulged eyes. Negative for other eye symptoms. Ears: Denies ear symptoms. Nose: Negative for sneezing, nose bleed, nasal discharge. Throat: Negative for sore throat or swallowing difficulties.

SKIN:  Negative for skin symptoms.

CARDIOVASCULAR: Negative for edema, neck vein distension, chest pain, palpitations, or SOB.

RESPIRATORY:  Negative for respiratory symptoms.

GASTROINTESTINAL: Denies abdominal symptoms.

GENITOURINARY: Denies genitourinary symptoms.

NEUROLOGICAL: Positive for fatigue. Negative for headaches, dizziness, muscle weakness, syncope, or burning sensations.

MUSCULOSKELETAL: Denies musculoskeletal symptoms.

HEMATOLOGIC:  Denies hematologic symptoms.

LYMPHATICS: Denies lymphatic symptoms.

PSYCHIATRIC:  Negative for mood symptoms.

ENDOCRINOLOGIC: Denies endocrine symptoms.

ALLERGIES: Negative for allergic symptoms.

O.

Physical exam:

GENERAL: Female patient in her early 40s. She appears overweight, alert, and oriented. Her speech is clear and goal-directed, and she maintains eye contact throughout the session.

HEENT: Head: Atraumatic and normocephalic. Eyes: Bulging eyes bilaterally, lid lag, lid retraction, PERRLA. Ears: Tympanic membranes are intact and shiny, with minimal pus. Nose: Moist mucous membranes, patent nostrils. Throat: Tongue is midline, and tonsillar glands are non-inflamed.

NECK: Swollen; The thyroid gland is smooth and; thyroid bruits present.

CARDIOVASCULAR: Regular heart rate and rhythm. Audible S1 and S2 with no murmurs.

RESPIRATORY: Uniform chest rise and fall; smooth respirations; Chest is clear.

Diagnostic results:

TSH levels- elevated.

A.

Differential Diagnoses

Graves disease: Grave’s disease is the most prevalent form of hyperthyroidism. The typical clinical features of Grave’s disease are increased levels of Thyroxine (T4) and enlargement of the thyroid gland. Ophthalmopathy is the hallmark of Graves disease and manifests with eye redness, swelling, upper eyelid retraction, lid lag, conjunctivitis, and bulging eyes Davies et al., 2020). Clinical symptoms include fatigue, general body weakness, sweating, warm, moist, fine skin, eye pain, photophobia, protruding eyes, double vision, heat intolerance, and weight loss despite increased appetite (Davies et al., 2020). Physical exam of the neck reveals a diffusely enlarged and smooth thyroid gland. Graves disease is a presumptive diagnosis based on positive symptoms of bulging eyes, fatigue, elevated TSH levels, thyroid bruits, and diffusely enlarged and smooth thyroid gland.

Subacute thyroiditis: Subacute thyroiditis is diagnosed based on a history of neck tenderness, respiratory tract infection, increased sedimentation rate, and inadequate or absent radioactive iodine consumption. It has a self-limited course. Local thyroid symptoms include dysphagia, pain over the thyroid area (gradual or sudden onset), and hoarseness (Stasiak & Lewiński, 2021). Constitutional clinical symptoms include fever, anorexia, malaise, fatigue, and myalgia. In stage three of the disease, TSH levels are usually elevated. Subacute thyroiditis is a differential diagnosis based on positive symptoms of swollen neck, fatigue, and elevated TSH levels.

Hashimoto Thyroiditis: Hashimoto Thyroiditis occurs due to the damage of thyroid cells by immune processes mediated by cells and antibodies. It is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Symptoms include fatigue, energy loss, constipation, dry skin, weight gain, and bulging/protruding eyes (Ragusa et al., 2019). In addition, the TSH levels are invariably elevated. Positve clinical features of fatigue, bulging eyes, weight gain, and increased TSH levels support Hashimoto Thyroiditis as a differential diagnosis.

Goiter: Goiter presents with a distended thyroid gland (diffuse or nodular). The thyroid gland causes compresses adjacent organs causing shortness of breath, painful swallowing, stridor, nd voice hoarseness (Ragusa et al., 2019). The findings of a distended thyroid gland mae==ke Goiter a possible diagnosis.

Exophthalmos: Exophthalmos is an abnormal bulging of the eyeball. It is characterized by pupillary abnormalities. Patients also report pain, double vision, pulsation, change in effect or size with position, and disturbance in visual acuity (Topilow et al., 2020). Exophthalmos is a likely diagnosis owing to protruding eyes.

 References

Davies, T. F., Andersen, S., Latif, R., Nagayama, Y., Barbesino, G., Brito, M., Eckstein, A. K., Stagnaro-Green, A., & Kahaly, G. J. (2020). Graves’ disease. Nature reviews. Disease primers6(1), 52. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0184-y

Ragusa, F., Fallahi, P., Elia, G., Gonnella, D., Paparo, S. R., Giusti, C., Churilov, L. P., Ferrari, S. M., & Antonelli, A. (2019). Hashimotos’ thyroiditis: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinic, and therapy. Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism33(6), 101367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2019.101367

Stasiak, M., & Lewiński, A. (2021). New aspects in the pathogenesis and management of subacute thyroiditis. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-021-09648-y

Topilow, N. J., Tran, A. Q., Koo, E. B., & Alabiad, C. R. (2020). Etiologies of Proptosis: A review. Internal medicine review (Washington, D.C.: Online)6(3), 10.18103/imr.v6i3.852. https://doi.org/10.18103/imr.v6i3.852

Name: NURS_6512_Week_5_Assignment_1_Rubric