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NURS 6630 Foundational Neuroscience Discussion

Prescribers must understand the agonist-to-antagonist action of psychopharmacologic medications. The spectrum of activity is classified as an agonist, antagonist, partial agonist, and inverse agonist. An agonist binds to the receptor and activates the receptor to cause a change to its maximum capacity. An antagonist has the affinity to attach to the receptor. However, it does not produce any effect. It prevents the activity of the agonist (Cardoso et al., 2021). A partial agonist binds to the receptor and partially activates the receptor but cannot produce the maximum capacity (Mizuguchi et al., 2020). It also prevents the activity of full agonists (Cardoso et al., 2021). An inverse agonist binds to the receptor site to prevent the activity of the receptor site and triggers an opposite effect.

An example is the relationship between opioids, buprenorphine, and Naloxone. Opioid such as morphine (agonist) activates the receptor site, while buprenorphine (Partial agonist) will activate the receptors partially and prevent the action of the morphine. Naloxone(antagonist) will not generate any action at the receptor site. However, when morphine and buprenorphine are present, it blocks both agents’ actions from occurring (Mizuguchi et al., 2020).

Acetylcholine receptors are categorized as muscarinic and nicotinic. The muscarinic receptors are second messengers, the G couple protein. They impact postganglionic parasympathetic nervous system functions, activation is comparatively slow, and they affect cellular homeostasis (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016). The nicotinic receptor is the ion channel that permits a rapid inflow of sodium and calcium into the postsynaptic neuron. Both G couple protein and ion gate channels are stimulated by acetylcholine and transported by the neuronal and nonneuronal cells through the body (Jelinek et al., 2021).

Epigenetics is the process by which the function of a gene can be modified devoid of altering the DNA molecule, and the modification in genetic function could be inherited (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016). Epigenetics has become known as a mediator of environmental and genetic risk factors that may play a role in disease onset. Epigenetic changes have frequently been studied as disease-specific. These would provide prospective pharmacological interventions to manipulate genes that could alleviate a genetic disease (Alameda et al., 2022).

The impact of epigenetics on individual genes may vary depending on environmental and genetic risk factors. As a result, a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner should give an individualized treatment based on the patient’s genetic composition and a good understanding of the action mechanism of agonist, antagonist, partial agonist, and inverse agonist of psychopharmacologic agents. An example is the prescription of a benzodiazepine such as Ativan, used to treat anxiety disorder, insomnia, panic disorder, and alcohol withdrawal psychosis. Prescribers must start at the lowest dose for a short duration, secondary to the risk of dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal (Casari et al., 2022). Ativan binds to the benzodiazepine receptors at GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) ligand chloride channel complex and enhances the inhibitory effect of GABA. It is crucial to understand the role of the antagonist flumazenil, which prevents the activity of the agonist during overdose incidence. Flumazenil may cause seizures and thus should not be used in patients with seizure disorders (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016).

NURS 6630 Foundational Neuroscience Discussion

NURS 6630 Foundational Neuroscience Discussion

Neuroscience is the scientific study of the human central nervous system to understand the brain’s dysfunction that can lead to disease, mental disorders, and physical impairment (Karmarkar & Plassmann, 2019). The complex design of a neuron is the basic understanding of communication by sending impulses to other body organs. The brain controls human behavior and the functions of body organs. The anatomy and physiology of the brain help understand the part of the brain affected by mental illness. For example, poor concentration and cognitive skills dysfunction is the forebrain pathology. Additionally, one can understand the mode of action of psychopharmacology. For example, antidepressants may function by inhibiting the serotonin or epinephrine receptors.

An Agonist-To-Antagonist Spectrum of Action and How Partial and Inverse Agonists Influence Psychopharmacologic

An antagonist binds at the receptors by blocking any event of an agonist, hence, blocking the biological response. For example, naloxone is a competitive opioid antagonist and has no effects with opioid co-administration (Gicquelais, et al, 2019). An agonist binds to a receptor causing activation of the receptor, hence, the biological response. A partial agonist activates the receptors partially with lesser effect on the brain. For example, buprenorphine is a partial agonist, and therefore, an antagonist may block its opioid function without activating its receptors. An inverse receptor binds with constitutively active receptors and inhibits receptor activity by exerting opposite pharmacological effects that suppress spontaneous receptor signaling.

Comparison between Actions of G Couple Proteins and Ion Gated Channels

G coupled proteins GPCRs are integral membrane proteins that convert extracellular responses to hormones, neurotransmitters, olfaction, and taste signals. The GPCRs work by binding to the hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors to initiate a cellular response. The three types of G-couple receptors are alpha, beta, and gamma, in which the ligands bind and activate (Yudin & Rohacs 2019). Ion gated channels are integral membrane proteins of excitable cells that allow a flux of ions to pass only under defined circumstances. These channels are voltage-gated sodium channel neurons and ligand-dated acetylcholine receptors of the cholinergic synapses. The ion gated channel pull and bonds to the agonist changing the protein while g coupled proteins are used by the cells to convert intracellular signals into responses.

The Role of Epigenetics In the Pharmacologic Action

Epigenetics regulate gene activity by switching off the gene activity or activating the gene activity. Epigenetics plays a role in the phenotypic activity of the cell in diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Epigenetics modify gene expressions after drug administration to counteract the disease states in humans. Epigenetics proves its effectiveness in treating psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders to its ability to modify gene expressions.

The Significance of the Information to Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner

A psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner should have basic knowledge of the concepts of foundational neuroscience. Understanding the function of agonists, inverse and partial agonists, and antagonists prevent co-administration of drugs that agonize and antagonize the same receptors. For example, in treating a patient with a depressive mood disorder, prescribing antipsychotics such as fluphenazine worsens the depressive mood because it antagonizes the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors depressing the release of the hypothalamic hormone.

References

Gicquelais, R. E., Bohnert, A. S., Thomas, L., & Foxman, B. (2020). Opioid agonist and antagonist use and the gut microbiota: associations among people in addiction treatment. Scientific reports10(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76570-9

Karmarkar, U. R., & Plassmann, H. (2019). Consumer neuroscience: Past, present, and future. Organizational Research Methods22(1), 174-195.

https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1094428117730598

Yudin, Y., & Rohacs, T. (2019). The G‐protein‐biased agents PZM21 and TRV130 are partial agonists of μ‐opioid receptor‐mediated signalling to ion channels. British journal of pharmacology176(17), 3110-3125. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.14702

As a psychiatric nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat patients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Cultura RF
For this Discussion, review the Learning Resources and reflect on the concepts of foundational neuroscience as they might apply to your role as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner in prescribing medications for patients.

By Day 3 of Week 2

Post a response to each of the following:
1. Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments.
2. Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.
3. Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.
4. Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to patients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a patient in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 2

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one of the following ways:
• If your colleagues’ posts influenced your understanding of these concepts, be sure to share how and why. Include additional insights you gained.
• If you think your colleagues might have misunderstood these concepts, offer your alternative perspective and be sure to provide an explanation for them. Include resources to support your perspective.
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!
Submission and Grading Information

NURS 6630 Foundational Neuroscience DiscussionGrading Criteria

To access your rubric:
Week 2 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 2 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 2

To Participate in this Discussion:
Week 2 Discussion

________________________________________
What’s Coming Up in Week 3?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images
Next week, you will explore medication adherence and strategies to help overcome non-adherence to pharmacotherapeutics. You will also complete a Quiz that addresses the content covered throughout this module.
Next Week

To go to the next week:
Week 3

Week 2: Neurotransmitters and Receptor Theory

Receptors and neurotransmitters are like a lock-and-key system. Just as it takes the right key to open a specific lock, it takes the right neurotransmitter to bind to a specific receptor. Not surprisingly, as it concerns psychopharmacology, the pharmacotherapeutics that are prescribed must trigger the release of certain neurotransmitters that bind to the correct receptors in order to elicit a favorable response for the patient. The mechanism of this binding and the response that follows reflects receptor theory and lies at the foundation of pharmacology.
This week, you will continue your examination of neuroanatomy and neuroscience as you engage with you colleagues in a Discussion. You will also explore the potential impacts of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of pharmacotherapeutics.

Also Read:

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NURS 6630 Case 14: Scatter-Brained Mother Whose Daughter Has ADHD, Like Mother, Like Daughter

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NURS 6630 Week 7 Therapy for Patients With Schizophrenia

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NURS 6630 Week 1 Introduction to Neuroanatomy

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Learning Objectives

Students will:

• Analyze the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents
• Compare the actions of g couple proteins to ion gated channels
• Analyze the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action
• Analyze the impact of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of medications
________________________________________

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

Camprodon, J. A., & Roffman, J. L. (2016). Psychiatric neuroscience: Incorporating pathophysiology into clinical case formulation. In T. A. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics (pp. 1–19). Elsevier.

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

The University of British Columbia. (n. d.). Neuroanatomy videos. http://neuroanatomy.ca/videos.html
Note: Please review all of the media under the neuroanatomy series.

Optional Resources (click to expand/reduce)

Pathopharmacology: Disorders of the Nervous System: Exploring the Human Brain
Dr. Norbert Myslinski reviews the structure and function of the human brain. Using human brains, he examines and illustrates the development of the brain and areas impacted by disorders associated with the brain. (15m)
Introduction to Advanced Pharmacology
In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse. (6m)

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.
Content
Name: NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric
• Grid View
• List View
Excellent

Point range: 90–100 Good

Point range: 80–89 Fair

Point range: 70–79 Poor

Point range: 0–69
Main Posting:

Response to the Discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. Points Range: 40 (40%) – 44 (44%)
Thoroughly responds to the Discussion question(s).

Is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

No less than 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three current credible sources. Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)
Responds to most of the Discussion question(s).

Is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

50% of the post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible references. Points Range: 31 (31%) – 34 (34%)
Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with fewer than two credible references. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 30 (30%)
Does not respond to the Discussion question(s).

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible references.
Main Posting:

Writing Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%)
Written clearly and concisely.

Contains no grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Written concisely.

May contain one to two grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Written somewhat concisely.

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NURS 6630 Foundational Neuroscience Discussion
NURS 6630 Foundational Neuroscience Discussion

May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.
Main Posting:

Timely and full participation Points Range: 9 (9%) – 10 (10%)
Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts main Discussion by due date. Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%)
Posts main Discussion by due date.

Meets requirements for full participation. Points Range: 7 (7%) – 7 (7%)
Posts main Discussion by due date. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%)
Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post main Discussion by due date.
First Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources. Points Range: 9 (9%) – 9 (9%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives. Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting. Points Range: 7 (7%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.
First Response:
Writing Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%)
Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
First Response:
Timely and full participation Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date. Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Posts by due date. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.
Second Response:
Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources. Points Range: 9 (9%) – 9 (9%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives. Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting. Points Range: 7 (7%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.
Second Response:
Writing Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%)
Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
Second Response:
Timely and full participation Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date. Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Posts by due date. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Neuroscience is the scientific study of the human central nervous system to understand the brain’s dysfunction that can lead to disease, mental disorders, and physical impairment (Karmarkar & Plassmann, 2019). The complex design of a neuron is the basic understanding of communication by sending impulses to other body organs. The brain controls human behavior and the functions of body organs. The anatomy and physiology of the brain help understand the part of the brain affected by mental illness. For example, poor concentration and cognitive skills dysfunction is the forebrain pathology. Additionally, one can understand the mode of action of psychopharmacology. For example, antidepressants may function by inhibiting the serotonin or epinephrine receptors.

An Agonist-To-Antagonist Spectrum of Action and How Partial and Inverse Agonists Influence Psychopharmacologic

An antagonist binds at the receptors by blocking any event of an agonist, hence, blocking the biological response. For example, naloxone is a competitive opioid antagonist and has no effects with opioid co-administration (Gicquelais, et al, 2019). An agonist binds to a receptor causing activation of the receptor, hence, the biological response. A partial agonist activates the receptors partially with lesser effect on the brain. For example, buprenorphine is a partial agonist, and therefore, an antagonist may block its opioid function without activating its receptors. An inverse receptor binds with constitutively active receptors and inhibits receptor activity by exerting opposite pharmacological effects that suppress spontaneous receptor signaling.

Comparison between Actions of G Couple Proteins and Ion Gated Channels

G coupled proteins GPCRs are integral membrane proteins that convert extracellular responses to hormones, neurotransmitters, olfaction, and taste signals. The GPCRs work by binding to the hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors to initiate a cellular response. The three types of G-couple receptors are alpha, beta, and gamma, in which the ligands bind and activate (Yudin & Rohacs 2019). Ion gated channels are integral membrane proteins of excitable cells that allow a flux of ions to pass only under defined circumstances. These channels are voltage-gated sodium channel neurons and ligand-dated acetylcholine receptors of the cholinergic synapses. The ion gated channel pull and bonds to the agonist changing the protein while g coupled proteins are used by the cells to convert intracellular signals into responses.

The Role of Epigenetics In the Pharmacologic Action

Epigenetics regulate gene activity by switching off the gene activity or activating the gene activity. Epigenetics plays a role in the phenotypic activity of the cell in diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Epigenetics modify gene expressions after drug administration to counteract the disease states in humans. Epigenetics proves its effectiveness in treating psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders to its ability to modify gene expressions.

The Significance of the Information to Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner

A psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner should have basic knowledge of the concepts of foundational neuroscience. Understanding the function of agonists, inverse and partial agonists, and antagonists prevent co-administration of drugs that agonize and antagonize the same receptors. For example, in treating a patient with a depressive mood disorder, prescribing antipsychotics such as fluphenazine worsens the depressive mood because it antagonizes the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors depressing the release of the hypothalamic hormone.

 References

Gicquelais, R. E., Bohnert, A. S., Thomas, L., & Foxman, B. (2020). Opioid agonist and antagonist use and the gut microbiota: associations among people in addiction treatment. Scientific reports10(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76570-9

Karmarkar, U. R., & Plassmann, H. (2019). Consumer neuroscience: Past, present, and future. Organizational Research Methods22(1), 174-195.

https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1094428117730598

Yudin, Y., & Rohacs, T. (2019). The G‐protein‐biased agents PZM21 and TRV130 are partial agonists of μ‐opioid receptor‐mediated signalling to ion channels. British journal of pharmacology176(17), 3110-3125. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.14702

Does not post by due date.
Total Points: 100
Name: NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric

Excellent

Point range: 90–100

Good

Point range: 80–89

Fair

Point range: 70–79

Poor

Point range: 0–69

Main Posting:

Response to the Discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Thoroughly responds to the Discussion question(s).

Is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

No less than 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three current credible sources.

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to most of the Discussion question(s).

Is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

50% of the post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible references.

31 (31%) – 34 (34%)

Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with fewer than two credible references.

(0%) – 30 (30%)

Does not respond to the Discussion question(s).

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible references.

Main Posting:

Writing

(6%) – 6 (6%)

Written clearly and concisely.

Contains no grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

(5%) – 5 (5%)

Written concisely.

May contain one to two grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Written somewhat concisely.

May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

(0%) – 3 (3%)

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Posting:

Timely and full participation

(9%) – 10 (10%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts main Discussion by due date.

(8%) – 8 (8%)

Posts main Discussion by due date.

Meets requirements for full participation.

(7%) – 7 (7%)
Posts main Discussion by due date.
(0%) – 6 (6%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post main Discussion by due date.

First Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.

(9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

(8%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.
(7%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth.
(0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.
First Response:
Writing
(6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

(5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.

(0%) – 3 (3%)

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

First Response:
Timely and full participation
(5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.

(3%) – 3 (3%)
Posts by due date.
(0%) – 2 (2%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.

Second Response:
Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.
(9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

(8%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.
(7%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth.
(0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.
Second Response:
Writing
(6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

(5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.

(0%) – 3 (3%)

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Second Response:
Timely and full participation
(5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.

(3%) – 3 (3%)
Posts by due date.
(0%) – 2 (2%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.

Total Points: 100