coursework-banner

Topic 5: Outcome Measures Vs. Process Measures

Topic 5: Outcome Measures Vs. Process Measures

Benchmark – Outcome and Process Measures

Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is a planned organizational process to promote the continuous step-by-step improvement of clinical processes, patient care, and safety. Health providers plan and execute continuous practical improvements in patient care processes to achieve quality health care outcomes (McCalman et al., 2018). CQI aims to improve operations, systems processes, outcomes, and the work environment. CQI processes involve defining the issue, benchmarking, establishing a goal, followed by repeated quality improvement projects.  In this regard, this paper seeks to discuss process and outcome measures that can be employed for CQI, describe data collection for each measure, and solutions to the challenge.

Process Measures

Process measures are the particular interventions in a practice that contribute to a specific metric either positively or negatively. They denote the evidence-based interventions and best practices that a healthcare organization implements

to better patient care quality (Jazieh, 2020). Process measures signify what an organization or health providers do to improve or maintain clients’ health. They reflect the accepted clinical practice recommendations. Besides, they are used to establish the root cause of a problem in a health organization (Jazieh, 2020). Process measures that can be used for a CQI include the percentage of patients who are provided with discharge education and the percentage of elderly and frail patients who undertook a fall risk assessment.

Outcome Measures

Outcome measures are vital clinical and financial outcomes relevant to healthcare organizations. They are quality and cost targets that health organizations aim to promote improvement (Jazieh, 2020). Outcome measures indicate the effect of patient care interventions or health services on the health status of patients. An example of an outcome measure for a CQI is readmission rates.

Why Each Measure Was Chosen

 In the process measures, the metric on the percentage of patients provided with discharge education was selected because it influences patients’ self-care at home and health outcomes in the post-discharge phase. Discharge education provides patients and their families with essential information needed to effectively manage their health at home (Newnham et al., 2017). Lack of or inadequate discharge education is associated with ineffective self-care and lifestyle modification resulting in high emergency visits, readmissions, or comorbidities, which worsen the health outcomes. Newnham et al. (2017) assert that discharge education is mandated by the Joint Commission and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as essential measures for an organization to meet requirements for accreditation and public reporting.

The percentage of elderly and frail patients who undertook a fall risk assessment was selected because falls are a major cause of morbidity and prolonged patient stays. Providers must take measures to assess patients’ risk of falls in order to employ the appropriate measures to prevent falls (Slade et al., 2017). A fall risk assessment classifies a patient as a low, moderate, or high fall-risk. Therefore, every hospitalized elderly patient requires an assessment to establish the interventions to be instituted to prevent falls and subsequent injuries.

Readmission rates was selected as an outcome measure because they are costly yet preventable. Readmission rates reflect the quality of care provided in an organization. Thus, high readmission rates indicate a substandard quality of care, while low rates reflect high quality (Upadhyay et al., 2019).  Readmissions create a high burden to healthcare organizations and patients. In the United States, almost 20% of patients on Medicare get a readmission within 30 days after discharge, resulting in high costs of approximately $17billion annually (Upadhyay et al., 2019). Therefore, Efforts to reduce readmission rates in a hospital through CQI programs can save patients and healthcare organizations huge costs and promote better healthcare outcomes.

How Data Would Be Collected for Each Measure

The data on the patients provided with discharge education will be collected from patient electronic health records (EHR) and questionnaires. The EHR contains a patient’s discharge summary, which contains the patient’s diagnosis, diagnostic findings, hospital treatment, and planned follow-up (Newnham et al., 2017). The discharge summaries will be used to identify the number of hospitalized patients provided with discharge education. In addition, patients will be administered questionnaires to collect information on whether a patient was provided discharge education, if they understood the instructions and if they find the instructions helpful or unhelpful. Data on the percentage of elderly and frail patients who undertook a fall risk assessment will also be collected using the EHR. An EHR-based fall risk assessment tool will be used to evaluate how many patients were assessed and the prevention interventions taken by providers (Slade et al., 2017). Readmission rates data will be collected from patients’ health records and the hospital database. The data will include the number of readmitted patients within 30 days after discharge.

Explanation of How Success Would Be Determined

 The success of the metric on the percentage of patients provided with discharge education will be determined by increased efforts by providers in providing timely and relevant discharge education. It will also be determined by having discharge summaries indicating the patient education provided to a patient before discharge. In addition, the success of the metric on the percentage of elderly and frail patients who undertook a fall risk assessment will be determined by having an increased number of filled risk assessment tools. Success on the readmission rates will be determined by having a reduced number of patients readmitted within 30 days, one year after a CQI project was initiated.

Data-Driven, Cost-Effective Solutions

High readmission rates can be addressed by improving care coordination and communication of patient care. Effective communication of patients’ health information is crucial to ensure patients are not readmitted. Patients must be conversant with their treatment plans as they move from the hospital settings to their homes, and this necessitates care coordination and communication among providers (Hoyer et al., 2018). However, using different health IT systems is a major barrier to care coordination. Health providers participating in patients’ care coordination can use health information exchanges (HIEs), which enable providers to receive patients’ information from different organizations and enhance their care management (Hoyer et al., 2018). Improved communication and care coordination is proven to lower readmission rates and, eventually, healthcare costs.

Conclusion

Process measures signify what an organization or health providers do to improve or maintain clients’ health. On the other hand, outcome measures signify the effect of the patient care interventions on their health status. The selected process measures include the percentage of patients provided with discharge education and the percentage of elderly and frail patients who undertook a fall risk assessment. The selected outcome measure is readmission rates since it reflects the quality of healthcare delivered by health providers. Improved care coordination and communication can help reduce readmission rates.

 References

Hoyer, E. H., Brotman, D. J., Apfel, A., Leung, C., Boonyasai, R. T., Richardson, M., Lepley, D., & Deutschendorf, A. (2018). Improving Outcomes After Hospitalization: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Evaluation of Care Coordination Strategies for Reducing 30-Day Readmissions to Maryland Hospitals. Journal of general internal medicine33(5), 621–627. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4218-4

Jazieh, A. R. (2020). Quality Measures: Types, Selection, and Application in Health Care Quality Improvement Projects. Global Journal on Quality and Safety in Healthcare3(4), 144-146. https://doi.org/10.36401/JQSH-20-X6

McCalman, J., Bailie, R., Bainbridge, R., McPhail-Bell, K., Percival, N., Askew, D., Fagan, R., & Tsey, K. (2018). Continuous Quality Improvement and Comprehensive Primary Health Care: A Systems Framework to Improve Service Quality and Health Outcomes. Frontiers in public health6, 76. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00076

Newnham, H., Barker, A., Ritchie, E., Hitchcock, K., Gibbs, H., & Holton, S. (2017). Discharge communication practices and healthcare provider and patient preferences, satisfaction and comprehension: a systematic review. International Journal for Quality in Health Care29(6), 752-768. https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzx121

Slade, S. C., Carey, D. L., Hill, A. M., & Morris, M. E. (2017). Effects of falls prevention interventions on falls outcomes for hospitalized adults: protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis. BMJ Open7(11), e017864. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017864

Upadhyay, S., Stephenson, A. L., & Smith, D. G. (2019). Readmission Rates and Their Impact on Hospital Financial Performance: A Study of Washington Hospitals. Inquiry: a journal of medical care organization, provision, and financing56, 46958019860386. https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958019860386

ALSO READ:

Your unit data reflect an upward trend in blood administration errors

Identify which one of the following approaches you would choose to assist in determining and measuring outcomes: FMEA, Pareto principle, and control charts.

Measurement is required to determine the success of your CQI project.

What is the difference between primary and secondary data?

Topic 5: Outcome Measures Vs. Process Measures

Topic 6: Overview Of Quality Data

The Role of HR in Developing HR-Mindedness

In general, discuss both the reliability and validity as they relate to recruitment and selection practices.

What processes, procedures, and specific websites are currently being used in your organization to attract and acquire potential employees from the online setting?

Organizations may have developed a detailed interview process with standard questions for each position, pre-employment assessments, and other selection tools

How does a performance management system connect with training and development and compensation strategies?

Topic 2: Staffing: Recruitment And Selection

Topic 7: Pay And Benefits Incentives

Topic 1: Introduction to Project and Practicum

Topic 4: Organizational Structure

Topic 5: Strategic Planning and Budgeting

SOCW 6060 Week 7 Assignment Application of Feminist Theory to a Case Study

SOC-449 Topic 8 DQs GCU What steps would you take to ensure your verbal and nonverbal responses are the right ones to move the process forward?

SOC-320-O500 Topic 7 Discussion GCU Compare and contrast elder abuse and child abuse

SOC 480 Topic 2 DQ 2 In research, explain why it is important for ethics to be applied

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Topic 5: Outcome Measures Vs. Process Measures

Lopes Write Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to Lopes Write, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.

Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.

Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?

Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.

If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.

I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.

As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.

Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource