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NURS 6050 Discussion Presidential Agendas

NURS 6050 Discussion Presidential Agendas

NURS 6050 Discussion Presidential Agendas

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Introduction

In both history and at present, almost every American has had to deal with a crisis that started at some point and rose to the presidential level, and became a presidential agenda. Be it terrorism, economic calamity, a natural disaster, or a political scandal, the Presidents have handled them using their own means, which sometimes attract praise and criticism in equal measure (Darlene, 2020). This brief paper looks into how the last three American former presidents handled health care and what could have been done differently

The Presidential Responses

In the year 2003, President Bush had to handle the issue of the AIDS epidemic crisis and SARS. His commitment to fight AIDS received praises from both Democrats and Republicans alike. One way in which he handled AIDS was through the creation of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) that ensured huge amounts of funds were made available to help fight AIDS. President Obama also made strides in his response to the AIDS epidemic. During his campaigns, he promised a comprehensive National HIV/AIDS strategy for the USA. True to his word, President Obama delivered on the same promise (Crawley, 2020). The strategy set up by the Obama administration is still the guiding force behind the collective efforts. Besides, Obama brought for the first time consistent yearly HIV prevention increases.

Even though there have been research efforts to help end AIDS, the epidemic is still there, and President Trump also has to deal with the same in his own way. President Trump set up a ten-year initiative to end the HIV epidemic (Hiers, 2020). The plan had federal resources to help in implementing the plan. The plan was a good one since the effort included so many rural and southern areas. However, I feel that the plan is wholly medical. Therefore, in his position, I would advocate for more emphasis on strategies that can help the community to adhere to the treatment plan.

References

Crowley J.(2020, January, 29). PRESIDENT OBAMA’S LEGACY OF LEADERSHIP ON HIV/AIDS.https://oneill.law.georgetown.edu/president-obamas-legacy-of-leadership-on-hiv-aids/.

Darlene S. (2020, March, 23). Presidents in health crises: Trump more hands-on than many

Hiers, K. (2020). Implementing the Trump Administration’s “Ending the HIV Epidemic” Plan in the Southern United States. Doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305452

The population health topic I am choosing is the opioid epidemic. I chose this because it affects such a large population in today’s world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022), drug overdose deaths have increased by nearly 5% from 2018 to 2019 and quadrupled since 1999. Over 70% of the 70,630 deaths in 2019 involved an opioid. In 2020, 91,799 drug overdose deaths occurred in the United States. The number continues to rise, and drugs seem to be more accessible.

Regarding social determinants, people from low socio-economic classes have poorer health. They are more likely to use tobacco, drink alcohol at high risk, and use illicit drugs. Drug-dependent people are particularly likely to be unemployed and to experience marginalization, both of which can exacerbate their problems and prevent seeking or benefiting from treatment (Spooner,2017). Drug abuse is not shy when it comes to whom it affects. People in low socioeconomic classes happen to get slammed with drug abuse as we have not provided the right accessibility for them.

One of President Trump’s solutions was to build a wall. Theoretically, the wall would stop illegal drugs from coming in, and this wall was supposed to be built on the Mexican border. He also said he would enhance access to addiction services, end Medicaid policies that obstruct inpatient treatment, and expand incentives for state and local governments to use drug courts and mandated treatment to respond to the addiction crisis (Kaiser Family Foundation,2017). Although some think the wall may help, it is not the solution to the epidemic. In some cases, working from the outside inward works, but in this case, I think this epidemic needs to be approached from the inside out.

            In this case, I would have started the solution on the inside. I would have targeted what we can control right now. Stopping Illegal drugs from coming in will help in the long run, but you must focus on what illegal drugs are happening in the US. Building a wall doesn’t stop the use, trading, selling, or buying we are currently dealing with. I would work to eliminate those issues, do more research on who this affects the most, and start there. We know people from low socio-economic classes struggle the most, so I start there and work my way out. Maybe we start focusing on getting these people out of this low-income rut. We provide schooling, daycare, and opportunities some people will never receive. Even starting there seems small, but I would further it with Trump’s plan to enhance access to drug addiction services like counselors. I would hold more doctors accountable and pharmaceutical companies pushing these opioids for money.

According to the Democrat National Committee (2020), President Biden’s solution includes holding people accountable such as big pharmaceutical companies, executives, and others, responsible for their role in triggering the opioid crisis. Biden will create effective prevention, treatment, and recovery services available to all through a $125 billion federal investment. Most importantly, we will stop overprescribing pain medication to citizens. I think Biden’s solutions to this epidemic were much better; these solutions start inward and target the people in the US struggling. I believe the solutions listed will help the country see a decline in opioid deaths, but they won’t solve the issue altogether.

As much as I agree with this approach, I don’t think the primary producers of these drugs are being held accountable enough. I would figure out a way other than fines to serve these companies. Possibly suspending their production may be a helping solution. The problem is these companies are laced with money, so half the time, they don’t even blink at the request to hand over money due to fines. I wouldn’t change much to Biden’s policy otherwise. I think his approach gives people accessibility, and that’s truly what we need to end this epidemic.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022). Death Rate Maps & Graphs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/deaths/index.html

Democrat National Committee. (2020). The Biden plan to end the opioid crisis. Joe Biden for President: Official Campaign Website. Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://joebiden.com/opioidcrisis/

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2017, January 9). President-elect Donald Trump stands on six health care issues – election 2016: The issues. KFF. Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://www.kff.org/report-section/where-president-elect-donald-trump-stands-on-six-health-care-issues/#opioid

Spooner, C.  (2017). SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF DRUG USE. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC). Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/

Unfortunately, VA healthcare reform is faced with similar challenges of establishing universal health care but on a smaller scale. Agendas, interest groups, insurance stakeholders, pharmaceutical suppliers, and access to care are all variables in creating policies that appear to be relentless barriers to healthcare reform; however, change is a process. The evolution of the CHOICE act to the Sgt. Ketchum Rural Veterans Mental Health Act of 2021 is promising. Findings from this living body of veteran health data and research will continue to shape policy improvement. I am hopeful that with each future bill and amendment passed, a new layer of protection will be provided to those who have sacrificed their lives to protect us.

References

Albanese, A. P., Bope, E. T., Sanders, K. M., & Bowman, M. (2019). The VA mission act of 2018: A potential game changer for rural GME expansion and Veteran health care. The Journal of Rural Health, 36(1), 133–136. https://doi.org/10.1111/jrh.12360
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2016, December 13). VA ruling on APRN practice: a breakthrough for veterans health care. Message posted on the American Association of Colleges of Nursing Listserv:web@aacn.nche.edu
Department of Veterans Affairs (2018b). VA National Suicide Data Report: 2005–2015. Retrieved from
https://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/ docs/data-sheets/OMHSP_National_Suicide_Da ta_Report_2005-2015_06-14-18_508-compliant.pdf
Monteith, L. L., Wendleton, L., Bahraini, N. H., Matarazzo, B. B., Brimner, G., & Mohatt, N. V. (2020). Together with veterans: Va national strategy alignment and lessons learned from community‐based suicide prevention for rural veterans. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 50(3), 588–600. https://doi.org/10.1111/sltb.12613
VA.gov: Veterans Affairs. RURAL VETERANS. (2016, January 19).
https://www.ruralhealth.va.gov/aboutus/ruralvets.asp.
Veterans Health Administration, D. U. S. for O. and M. (2013, May 8). VA.gov: Veterans Affairs. Enhanced RANGE Program. https://www.lexington.va.gov/services/Enhanced_RANGE_Program.asp.

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Thank you for the question. I see this health care disparity as a priority within the context of social determinants of health because of its pervasive nature. According to the Health People 2030 objectives, social determinants of health (SDOH) are the dynamic qualities and characteristics of the environment an individual is born into, lives, learns, works, plays, worships, and ages. These environmental qualities and characteristics are considered social determinants because they will directly or indirectly determine or impact the health, functioning, risks, and quality-of-life outcomes of the people living within it (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2021). The Healthy People 2030 Framework identified the following five domains of SDOH: economic stability, education access and quality, health care access and quality, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community context.
Shortages of mental health care providers and poor access to mental health care services, especially in rural areas, fit perfectly under the health care access and quality domain; however, these same disparities have direct and indirect impacts on the existing four domains as well. Most mental illness diagnosis and disorders include a variable of pathology impacting your quality of life, or the impairment of your perception that thereof. Thus, the psychiatric mental health patient population in general, including veterans, require a scaled-up version of services due to the vary nature of the pervasiveness of untreated mental conditions on all domains of health and functioning. Effective mental health treatment has the power to help an individual function at work (economic stability), encourage self-actualization and improvement (by harnessing access to education or investing in their children’s), and find purpose and belonging in a community (neighborhood and community context). I would say the mental health provider shortage and poor access to mental health care services in the rural veteran community is a good place to start developing interventions and policies that can be translated to a larger population of people in need.

References

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.). Social determinants of health. Social
Determinants of Health- Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives- and-data/social-determinants-health.
Chisholm, D., Sweeny, K., Sheehan, P,. Rasmussen, B., Smit, F., Cuijpers, P., & Saxena, S. (2016). Scaling-
up treatment of depression and anxiety: A global return on investment analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(5), 415-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/s22150366(16)30024-4

Thank you for your post. Suicide continues to devastate the military community at an alarming rate. This nurse is personally aware of 5 deaths within this past year alone at the base we were stationed at. This can be attributed to the culture of the military when it comes to how a person who is suffering from mental illness is treated. I can speak firsthand to this as I have a very close friend that has been struggling with her mental health and when she hinted at it to her bosses she was made to feel as if her job was in jeopardy because heaven forbid military men and women are human and suffer mentally. Active-duty members are not allowed to seek mental health treatment from an outside provider, Tricare mandates that all active-duty members must receive a referral from their Primary Care Provider to receive mental health services (Military One Source , 2020). I would like to see a President change that requirement, as many military men and women do not seek treatment because they must go through their PCP and that goes on their permanent record. I believe mental health services should be covered without a referral.

Reference:

Military One Source . (2020, August 12). 7 Counseling Options for Service Members and Their Families. Retrieved from Military One Source : https://www.militaryonesource.mil/confidential-help/non-medical-counseling/military-and-family-life-counseling/7-counseling-options-for-service-members-and-their-families/

I do agree with you that the presidential agenda has been crucial in enactment of policies that have had a resounding impact on the general well-being of the American public. One of the key presidential agenda is the CHOICE Act of 2014 under the Obama administration (Ohl et al., 2018). Some of the salient features of this act include; improvement of access to care from non-VA providers, additional expansion of access to care and reviewing and expanding capacity and processes (Sayre et al., 2018). Under the Veterans Choice Act, there is the veteran’s choice fund and this was to be in operation for three years until the exhaustion of the fund. Moreover, the VA is mandated to develop a system of tracing and paying the claims for the care provided to the veterans by the non-veterans under the program or any other non-VA entities. This is meant to help the veterans in the rural areas to be able to access quality care a month them proper mental health guidance and assistance after years of war (Kaboli & Fihn, 2019).

References

Kaboli, P. J., & Fihn, S. D. (2019). Waiting for Care in Veterans Affairs Health Care Facilities and Elsewhere. JAMA Network Open, 2(1), e187079–e187079. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.7079
Ohl, M. E., Carrell, M., Thurman, A., Weg, M. V., Pharm, T. H., Mengeling, M., & Vaughan-Sarrazin, M. (2018). “Availability of healthcare providers for rural veterans eligible for purchased care under the veterans choice act.” BMC Health Services Research, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3108-8
Sayre, G. G., Neely, E. L., Simons, C. E., Sulc, C. A., Au, D. H., & Michael Ho, P. (2018). Accessing Care Through the Veterans Choice Program: The Veteran Experience. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 33(10), 1714–1720. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-018-4574-8

The healthcare system is highly sensitive and that is why presidents have to make critical decisions and ensure the safety of their citizens. I agree with you that the opioid epidemic is one of the healthcare issues that rose to the presidential level. Opioid misuse presents various health risks and that is why it was necessary to engage the presidential intervention. President Bush’s administration approached the issue in three ways. First, the administration provided efforts to stop the kids from using the drug. Secondly, the treatment for those already using the drug was expanded and finally, the flow of the drug into America was controlled. The measure would be undertaken for infectious diseases that arise, Breaking the infection cycle is important in managing health crises and emergencies (Hedberg, et al., 2019).

The Obama administration approached the issue more comprehensively and approved the CAR bill to fight the epidemic. Similarly, President Donald Trump declared the epidemic a national state of emergency and this was appropriate. I agree that health issues require urgent intervention to curb the causative factors and prevent the issue from spreading further and this is what the three presidential administrations did.

The presidents must be sensitive to identify the impacts of given health issues and develop appropriate policies that will minimize the harmful effects the citizens suffer (Smith, 2020). In this case, the use of opioid drugs was on the rise and the level could have been very disastrous if the relevant measures developed were not adopted. It is important that government systems set aside funds to handle medical emergencies whenever they rise because they cannot be postponed (Katz, Attal-Juncqua & Fischer, 2017).

References

Hedberg, K., Bui, L. T., Livingston, C., Shields, L. M., & Van Otterloo, J. (2019). Integrating public health and health care strategies to address the opioid epidemic: the Oregon Health Authority’s Opioid Initiative. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice25(3), 214-220. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000849.

Katz, R., Attal-Juncqua, A., & Fischer, J. E. (2017). Funding public health emergency preparedness in the United States. American journal of public health107(S2), S148-S152. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303956

Smith, H. J. (2020). Ethics, Public Health, and Addressing the Opioid Crisis. AMA Journal of Ethics22(8), 647-650. doi: 10.1001/amajethics.2020.647.

Presidential Agendas

Rather than focus on the treatment of chronic disease, policies that influence population health tend to emphasize prevention and wellness; the reduction or elimination of waste and the eradication of health disparities based on race, ethnicity, language, income, gender, sexual orientation, disability and other factors. The reasoning is that good health belongs to the whole, not just an individual. (New York State Dept. of Health, n.d.)  

Regardless of political affiliation, every citizen has a stake in healthcare policy decisions. Hence, it is little wonder why healthcare items become such high-profile components of presidential agendas. It is also little wonder why they become such hotly debated agenda items.

Consider a topic (mental health, HIV, opioid epidemic, pandemics, obesity, prescription drug prices, or many others) that rises to the presidential level. How did the current and previous presidents handle the problem? What would you do differently?

Reference:

New York State Department of Health. (n.d.). Making New York the healthiest state: Achieving the triple aim. Retrieved June 21, 2021 from https://www.health.ny.gov/events/population_health_summit/docs/what_is_population_health.pdf

Resources

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.
Click the weekly resources link to access the resources. 

WEEKLY RESOURCES

To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and reflect on the importance of agenda setting.
  • Consider how federal agendas promote healthcare issues and how these healthcare issues become agenda priorities.

By Day 3 of Week 1

Post your response to the discussion question: Consider a population health topic that rises to the presidential agenda level. Which social determinant most affects this health issue? How did two recent presidents handle the problem? What would you do differently?

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues* on two different days by expanding on their response and providing an example that supports their explanation or respectfully challenging their explanation and providing an example.

*Note: Throughout this program, your fellow students are referred to as colleagues.

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Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Name: NURS_6050_Module01_Week01_Discussion_Rubric

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. Supported by at least three current, credible sources. Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style. 40 (40%) – 44 (44%)Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth. Supported by at least three credible sources. Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style. 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)Responds to some of the discussion question(s). One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed. Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. Post is cited with two credible sources. Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors. Contains some APA formatting errors. 0 (0%) – 34 (34%)Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately. Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria. Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. Contains only one or no credible sources. Not written clearly or concisely. Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors. Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.
Main Post: Timeliness 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)Posts main post by day 3. 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)Does not post by day 3.
First Response 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings. Responds fully to questions posed by faculty. Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources. Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives. Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. Response is effectively written in standard, edited English. 15 (15%) – 16 (16%)Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings. Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed. Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. Response is effectively written in standard, edited English. 13 (13%) – 14 (14%)Response is on topic and may have some depth. Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication. Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited. 0 (0%) – 12 (12%)Response may not be on topic and lacks depth. Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication. Responses to faculty questions are missing. No credible sources are cited.
Second Response 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings. Responds fully to questions posed by faculty. Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources. Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives. Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. Response is effectively written in standard, edited English. 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings. Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed. Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. Response is effectively written in standard, edited English. 12 (12%) – 13 (13%)Response is on topic and may have some depth. Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication. Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited. 0 (0%) – 11 (11%)Response may not be on topic and lacks depth. Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication. Responses to faculty questions are missing. No credible sources are cited.
Participation 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days. 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
Total Points: 100

Also Read: NURS 6003 Examining Nursing Specialties

Rebecca Childres  

Nov 28, 2023 Nov 28, 2023 at 4:07pm  

Main Question Post 

 

                                                           Agenda Setting in Policies  

     Presidents and presidential candidates use agenda-setting in campaigns and during presidential terms.  According to the textbook Health Policy and Politics, 6th Edition, the definition of agenda setting is the process of bringing a problem to the government’s attention so that solutions can be considered (Milstead, Short 2019, page 17).   Agenda setting is used in all career fields and is highly beneficial in the medical field.  Many federal agendas promote healthcare issues as healthcare is a vital need in all people’s lives.  Healthcare topics become agenda priorities as policymakers and citizens are interested in the best public policies to address society’s concerns (Milstead, Short 2019, page 17).  Agenda-setting can create outcomes that can initiate new practices in healthcare organizations (Milstead, Short 2019, page 18).   

                                                            Access to Mental Health 

     Access to mental health is an important topic at the presidential level.  According to The United States Government and Biden Administration, insurers make it difficult to access mental health treatment, causing consumers to seek care out-of-network at higher costs for treatments (The United States Government, 2023).  Mental health is a vital part of the healthcare system, as adequate public access to it in needed.   President Biden states that mental health is health, and part of their agenda includes a strategy to transform how mental health is understood, accessed, treated, and integrated into healthcare settings (The United States Government, 2023).  It is expressed that this agenda will allow those insured greater access to mental health care within their network, reducing patient costs (The United States Government, 2023).   Former President Donald J. Trump stated at a time when many Americans are experiencing increased stress, anxiety, and personal loss, we must also ensure that our country can meet the mental health needs of those struggling in this crisis (National Archives and Records Administration, 2020).  This statement was made after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.  The former administration addressed the importance of the public’s access to mental health care.  Executive orders were made under the previous administration, and funding was obtained to provide support to the mental health needs of the public (National Archives and Records Administration, 2020).  After researching, it is evident that mental healthcare is an essential topic on the agendas of our former and current administrations.  Through my research it is evident that how the public obtains access to mental healthcare was focused on more within the Biden Administration.   

                                                       What Could Be Done Different 

     After working as a registered nurse at a Level 1 emergency room with a psychiatric unit, I have seen firsthand how a lack of patient resources can impact patient care.  I have seen how a lack of continuity of care can impact mental health patients and lead to poor outcomes.  Many patients who seek out mental health care do not know their options for receiving care and look to primary care providers or their local ER for treatments.  I feel as if the former administration laid the foundation for the current administration to create its agenda.  I believe that they did address the importance of mental health after the start of COVID-19 and the end of former President Trump’s term. It is my opinion that with more time former President Trump would have been able to create and implement his own agenda towards patient’s access to mental health care.  I see how the Biden Administration is making mental health a priority in their healthcare agenda.  I do not believe I would do anything differently.   I would however want to work with and reach out to more health care professionals.  I believe that by hearing the voices of the caregivers and providers the Biden Administration can learn vital information that can help improve outcomes for mental health patients.  I believe that more accessible access to in-network treatment would allow for continuity of care and more follow-ups, leading to a more positive patient experience.  A more positive patient experience will allow for better patient success and outcomes, which, as healthcare providers, should be our goal. 

             

                                                                   References 

Milstead, J.A., & Short, NM (2019).  Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed).   

         Jones & Bartlett Learning. 

National Archives and Records Administration.  (2020, October 5).  President Donald J. Trump 

         Is Safeguarding Americans’ Mental Health and Preventing The Tragedy of Suicide. 

        National Archives and Records Administration. 

        https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/briefings-  

Links to an external site.statements/president-donald-j-trump        

Links to an external site. 

Links to an external site.        safeguarding-Americans-mental-health-preventing-tragedy-suicide/  

The United States Government.  (2023, July 25).  Fact sheet: Biden-Harris Administration takes  

  Action to make it easier to access in-network mental health care. The White House.          https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-  

Links to an external site. Links to an external site.releases/2023/07/25/fact-  

Links to an external site. 

  sheet-Biden-harris-administration-takes-action-to-make-it-easier-to-access-in-network- 

   mental-health-care/